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# STAG6433

## Applied Sedimentology &

Sequence Stratigraphy

Unconsolidated clastic
sediments

## Unconsolidated clastic sediments

Particles (or clasts) are the basic elements of any sediment
Clastic (terrigenous clastic or siliciclastic) sediments (80-85%
of the stratigraphic record) consist of particles derived from
pre-existing rocks, as opposed to non-clastic sediments
Texture is the size, shape and arrangement of constituents.
Specific features include;

## - Grain (particle) size

- Grain shape
- Grain orientation
- Grain packing
- Fabric

## Lithology is the general characterization of a sediment or a

sedimentary rock (e.g., coarse sand, mudstone)

## Grain (particle) size

Udden-Wentworth scale most commonly used.
The phi value is the
negative logarithm
to the base 2 of the
particle diameter

Useful in interpreting
depositional
environments and in
term of depositional
mechanisms.

log2

## Grain-size (particle-size, granulometric) analysis

The old-fashioned way:
direct measurement (gravel)
and sieve/pipette analysis
(sand and mud)

The modern
technology: laser
particle sizing
(sand and mud)

## From the cumulative frequency

probability curve, we can calculate
mean, sorting (standard deviation),
skewness & kurtosis.

## persentil 50= 1.3

persentil 90= 3.2

Kurtosis

Values
from

To

0.41

0.67

very platykurtic

0.67

0.90

platykurtic

0.90

1.11

mesokurtic

1.10

1.50

Leptokurtic

1.50

3.00

very leptokurtic

> 3.00

Equal

extremely leptokurtic

Kurtosis

## Leptokurtic curves mean the

following:
Sediment highly sorted
Turbulence range narrow
Velocity changes narrow
For example, multicyclic,
clean, mature sands

## Playtkurtic curves mean the

following:
Sediment poorly sorted
Turbulence range wide
Velocity changes wide
For example, sediments near
source

skewness

Values
from

To

Mathematically:

Graphically
Skewed to the:

+1.00

+0.30

Strongly positive
skewed

values, coarse

+0.30

+0.10

Positive skewed

Negative phi
values

+0.10

- 0.10

Near symmetrical

Symmetrical

- 0.10

- 0.30

Negative skewed

## Positive phi values

- 0.30

- 1.00

Strongly negative
skewed

values, fine

skewness

## Positively skewed curves mean

the following:
Tail of fines
The range of sizes in the fine
fractions are greater than the
range of sizes in the coarser
fractions.

## Negatively skewed curves mean

the following:
Tail of coarse
The range of sizes in the coarse
fractions are greater than the
range of sizes in the fine
fractions.

## Standard deviation / sorting

Grain shape
Most popular method is visual by comparison with Zing diagram
(1954).

## Significance of shape reflects internal structure, jointing of

original rocks, bedding, lithology, hardness, fracture and
transportation.

## Grain shape - roundness

Roundness ratio of average radius of curvature of corners so that
of largest inscribing circle
well rounded to very angular

## Grain shape - sphericity

Sphericity measure of the degree to which a particle
approaches the shape of a sphere.
High or low.

Grain orientation
Tells us about current direction or geogmetry; affects permeability
(flow of gas, oil or water)
Beach perpendicular to wave action
Alluvial parallel to current

Sediment composition
Detrital mineral grains (quartz, feldspar, mica, heavy minerals)
Lithic fragments (polymineral grains or rock fragments)
Detrital mineral grains dominate in silts, lithic fragments
dominate in gravels

Sediment maturity
Sediment maturity (degree of change compared to
original bedrock: provides evidence on the history of a
sediment)
Textural (mud content, sorting, grain shape)
Mineralogical (proportion of stable or resistant minerals)

Clay minerals
Clay minerals are phyllosilicates with layered
crystal structures
Kandite group (two layers): kaolinite
Smectite group (three layers): montmorillonite, illite,
chlorite

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