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Food Technologys

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Revision Slides

April 2006

C. Budge

Slides content
3 Food choices
4 Dietary goals
5 Individual needs
6/7 Hygiene and safety in the
food industry
8/9 Quality
10 Properties and functions of
food ingredients
11 Heating and nutrition changes
12 Cereals
13 Fruit and vegetables
14 Meat, poultry, fish
15 Fats and oils
16- Milk, cheese and dairy
17 Eggs
April 2006

18 Sugar
19 Methods of cooking and
transfer of heat
20 Raising agents
21 Setting ingredients
22 Additives
23 Components of foods
24/25 Preservation
26 Smart foods
27 Systems and control
29 Jobs in the food industry
30 Product analysis

C. Budge

Nutritional needs and Food Choices

Food Choices

Food provides us with a variety of nutrients to keep us healthy

We need to eat a balanced diet. The nutrients we need are:
Proteins body building, growth and repair
Carbohydrates and fats supply the body with energy
Vitamins and minerals protective, keep us healthy
Food labels provide nutritional information this is important:
Comparisons of the nutritional content of different products
People may be on special diets e.g. low fat
Allows informed choices and that they have a variety of nutrients
What affects our food choice?
Cost; Availability of food; Regional variations or where people live;
Personal preferences; Lifestyle; Moral beliefs; Storage and cooking
facilities; Religious beliefs; Health; Peer pressure; Recent food scares;
Food trends; Cultural preferences.
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Nutritional needs and Food choices

Dietary goals

DRV Dietary Reference Values show the amount of food energy or

other nutrients needed by people of different ages

RNI Reference Nutrient Intake the amount of nutrient sufficient

for nearly everyone (about 97% of the population)

EAR Estimated Average Requirement is the amount of the average

need for food energy or a nutrient this is an average for a group

Dietary changes:
Reduce fat in cooking, choose lower-fat versions of food ingredients,
remove visible fat from meat, bacon and poultry
Reduce sugar used in recipes, avoid very sugary foods
Reduce salt add less salt to recipes and avoid ingredients that contain a
lot of sodium
Increase fibre eat more wholegrain foods bread and cereals, more
fruit, vegetables, pulses and nuts
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Nutritional Needs and Food Choices

Individual Needs

People have different nutritional needs, which change with age and
Food products are designed to appeal to different people
Groups of people with special dietary needs:
Vegetarians vegan, lacto

Obesity low fat products

Diabetics too much

glucose in their body

Food allergies milk, nuts,

eggs, fish and seafood,
Coeliacs allergy to gluten Babies no salt, sugar,
the protein in wheat
smooth texture
Religion Muslim, Jewish
Children portion size ,
nutrients and additives

April 2006

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Hygiene and Safety in the food industry

Part 1

Good hygiene is essential throughout the food preparation chain

Choosing and buying food; Transporting the ingredients; Storing food;

Preparing food; Cooking food; Keeping food warm or storing it
Rules and regulations support the preparation of food so that it is
safe to eat.
Health and Safety is an important issue for the manufacturer,
retailer and consumer
The consumer is protected by:
Food acts and regulations
Trading standards officers
Environmental health officers
Food factories have strict rules for hygiene and food preparation
Environmental issues that should be considered by the manufacturer,
retailer and consumer packaging, use of chemicals in the
manufacturing process, disposal of waste products
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Hygiene and Safety in the food industry

Part 2

Bacteria need warmth, moisture, food and time to grow and multiply

Cases of food poisoning are increasing

Cross-contamination raw food touching cooked food

Microbial contamination occurs when food has been infected by
bacteria, moulds and yeasts

Examples of bacteria Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus

Food retail is the point at which food is sold. Includes shops, restaurants,
fast food outlets, cafes, snack bars and vending machines

Temperature control is an effective way to control bacteria

Refrigerators food stored at 5C
Freezers domestic at -18C, supermarket at -29C

The food industry monitors temperature during production and distribution

Harmful bacteria destroyed at 70C for 2 minutes

April 2006

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Hygiene and Safety in the food industry

Part 3 - Quality

Quality assurance and quality control systems ensure that

quality food products are available to consumers

Quality assurance relates to the specification, hygiene procedures,
monitoring waste and sensory analysis
Quality control checks might include weight, measurement,
temperature, checks for foreign bodies and bacteria
The shelf life of a product is the length of time a product will last
without deteriorating
Use by and best before dates inform the consumer if the food
product is safe to eat and is of good quality
To maintain a good quality - food products must be stored correctly.
Food spoilage will occur if food is not stored correctly or if it has
reached the end of its shelf life
ISO 9000 series of international standards for quality assurance.
Gives greater efficiency in quality control systems
April 2006

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Hygiene and Safety in the food industry

Part 4 - Quality

High risk foods spoil in a short amount of time e.g. meat and fish
Perishable foods go off or spoil quickly
Low risk foods have a long shelf life
Dehydrated foods had the moisture removed
Ambient temperature normal room temperature - 20C and 25C
To avoid cross contamination use coloured chopping boards and
knives: raw fish blue; raw meat red; fruit and vegetables green;
cooked meat yellow
Food is processed in a variety of ways in the food industry
assembling food products, application of heat and cold, food
preservation and finishing techniques
Food preservation is used to prolong the shelf life of products
Food preservation freezing, canning, irradiation, AFD, MAP and
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Food Ingredients

Properties and functions

Food ingredients have a function within a recipe, some may have several

Coating chocolate on biscuits

Glazing egg on top of bread

Emulsifying egg yolks added

Aerating eggs used in a


whisked sponge (cake made

lighter by adding air)
Binding ingredients milk in
scone mixture
Bulking flour used in pastry
Setting gelatine used in jelly
Thickening flour used to
thicken a sauce
Adding flavour herbs and
spices to a variety of products
April 2006

to mayonnaise (stops ingredients

separating out)
Preserving vinegar used to
preserve onions (last longer)
Shortening lard or vegetable
fat will give a crumbly texture
Sweetening - honey in cakes
Adding moisture milk is
added to a batter
Adding texture nuts in cakes

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Food Ingredients

Heating and nutrition changes

Dry heat starch turns to dextrin
Moist heat starch granules soften
and swell and absorb water and
thicken liquids (gelatinisation)

When heated sugar dissolves, it
changes from white to golden

Fats solid
Melt to a liquid, bubble and can
decompose at high temperatures
when fats give off smoke and
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Denatures (changes) on heating,

then coagulates and sets
Vitamins A & D (fat soluble)
Not affected by the cooking
process as they are not soluble
in water
Vitamins B & C (water soluble)
Are soluble in water and are
destroyed by heat


Softens when it is heated with



Heating has little affect

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Food Ingredients

Cereals are important foods in our diet

Cereals are used in a variety of products
The main nutrients starch, some protein, NSP and some calcium, iron
and B vitamins

Types of cereals and products made from them

Wheat bread, pasta, pastry, biscuits, pies, cakes

Oats biscuits, porridge, oatcakes, bread, muesli
Maize bread, popcorn, sweetcorn, cornflour, polenta
Rye rye bread, rye crispbread, muesli
Rice noodles, rice cakes, puddings, ready-meals with rice
Barley soft drinks, beer, scones
Some cereals contain gluten which forms the structure of products such
as bread
Types of flour wheat, cornflour, potato, rice, arrowroot (tropical

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Food Ingredients
Fruit and Vegetables

We should eat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day

Fruit and vegetables provide us with vitamin C, betacarotenes,
carbohydrates and NSP (dietary fibre)
Vegetables and fruit need careful preparation to avoid loss of
vitamins and minerals

Saving vitamins and minerals:


Buy good quality and store in a cool, dark place for a short time
The nutrients are found under the surface of the skin, so either peel
thinly or eat with the skin on.
Cook vegetables very quickly in a small amount of water
Leave in large pieces to avoid too much nutrient loss from the
surface of the fruit or vegetable
Try to eat raw fruit and vegetables
Dont leave them to stand in water vitamin C & B are dissolved
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Food Ingredients
Meat, poultry and fish

Meat, poultry and fish are important sources of protein

Also contain iron, B group vitamins especially B12

They are made into a wide variety of products and ready-meals
Meat is cooked to kill bacteria, make it tender to eat and improve its
Cooking methods dry grilling, roasting, baking, frying
Cooking methods moist stewing, boiling, pressure cooking, casseroling
Cooked meat and raw meat should be stored separately to avoid crosscontamination
Poultry protein, lower in fat and more tender than meat
Chicken thoroughly cook to kill off any Salmonella bacteria
Fish white, oily and shell
Fish good source of protein, B group vitamins, iodine and fluoride
White fish low fat. Canned salmon and tuna good source of calcium

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Food Ingredients
Fats and oils

Fats and oils contain mainly fat, some contain vitamins and essential
fatty acids
F at should provide no more than 35% of food energy
Butter and margarine 80-82% fat. Used for spreading, baking,
shallow frying, pastry, sauces
Reduced fat margarine/spread 60-62% fat. Used for spreading,
all-in-one cakes, sauting, short crust pastry, sauces, scones
Half-fat butter/margarine/spread 39-41% - Used for spreading,
sauting, sauces, scones, choux pastry
Low fat/light spread less than 40% - spreading
Other fats used in cooking lard, suet, dripping
Margarine is fortified with vitamins A and D
Genetic modification of oils used for Soya, maize and oilseed rape
Use of fats shortening, flavour, trapping air
April 2006

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Food Ingredients

Milk, cheese and dairy products

Milk and dairy products are good sources of calcium, protein,

vitamin B12 and vitamins A and D

To reduce fat content choose lower fat versions e.g. semi-skimmed and
skimmed milk, low fat yogurts or fromage frais and lower fat cheese

Soya milk is used by vegans

Yogurt milk is heated, cooled and mixed with a culture of bacteria.

Kept at 40-45C for 3-6 hours. Protein coagulates, the yogurt thickens

Cheese coagulating the protein in milk making curds and whey. The
curd is pressed to make hard cheese like Cheddar

Storage should be kept in the fridge until the use by date

UHT can be kept at room temperature until opened

April 2006

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Food Ingredients

Nutritional value good quality protein, fat, cholesterol, vitamin A,

minerals: iron, phosphorus and calcium

Uses of eggs

Thickening coagulation of the protein thickens sauces and custards

Binding egg coagulates and sticks the dry ingredients together as
they cook e.g. bean burgers
Coating egg and breadcrumbs the egg coagulates and provides a
strong coating round fish
Forms a foam egg white can entrap air when its beaten meringues
Emulsifier will stabilise fat and sugar in a cake, oil and vinegar in
Glaze during baking egg turns golden brown
Salmonella raw egg may contain this. Many companies use pasteurised
egg. The Lion Quality mark shows that the hens have been vaccinated
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Food Ingredients

Sugar provides energy. Sucrose is made from sugar cane or beet

Types of sugar
Granulated used to sweeten drinks, adding to breakfast cereals
Caster finer cakes and biscuits
Icing very fine - icings and sweets
Brown (soft) gingerbreads and biscuits; Demerara in coffee
Functions: Sweetness, preservative, changes flavour, adds colour, bulking
agent, speeds up fermentation process e.g. yeast in bread, aids
lightness in cakes
Sugar comes in many forms
Sucrose also known as hydrolyzed starch, honey, glucose syrup
Maltose also golden syrup, lactose, brown sugar
Maple syrup glucose, fructose, fruit juices
Invert sugar dextrose, treacle
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Cooking Choices

Methods of cooking and transfer of heat

There is a variety of cooking methods used in food preparation
Large-scale manufacturers use the same processes but on a large scale.
Heat application used in the food industry baking, steaming, roasting,
boiling/blanching/simmering, frying shallow or deep fat, microwave
cooking, grilling
Heat application is used: to increase shelf life, to destroy enzymes and
micro-organisms, to soften food to make it edible, to produce the
desired consistency, to improve flavour, to increase the variety of food
Methods of heat transfer
Conduction heat is conducted from molecule to molecule in solid and liquid
Convection heat travels around liquids and air by convection currents. Hot
air rises, so ovens are hotter at the top
Radiation direct rays of heat from the grill heat the food
Microwaves cause the food molecules to vibrate creates frictional heat

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Food Ingredients
Raising agents

Bubbles of gas expand when heated and make a food mixture rise
Three types of raising agent air, steam, carbon dioxide gas
Air introduced: sieving flour, beating (batters), whisking egg white
(meringues), creaming (cakes), rubbing in (pastry, scones), rolling and
folding pastry (flaky, puff)
Steam water when heated turns to steam, this escapes pushing the
mixture up (Yorkshire pudding, clairs)
Carbon dioxide gas this expands when heated and pushes up the mixture
Baking powder: made from acid sodium pyrophosphate, rice flour and
sodium bicarbonate. Reacts with the cake mixture > produces carbon
dioxide gas
Bicarbonate of soda: same principle used in gingerbread
Yeast: fungus which needs warmth, food and liquid to ferment producing
carbon dioxide and alcohol. Most types of bread use yeast
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Food Ingredients
Setting ingredients

Many food products are set to make them firm and attractive to eat
Gelling agents create a smooth, set texture and help to suspend other
foods in a jelly
Gelatine made by boiling bones and tissues from animal carcasses. The
collagen in the connective tissue turns to gelatine when heated slowly in
liquid. Sold in powder form and in sheets. Used for jellies and mousses.
Pectin found in the cells of fruit. Mixed with the right proportion of
acid and sugar will form a gel. Used in jellies, jams and marmalades.
When the jam is cool, the gelatine forms a network which sets and
suspends the fruit, sugar and liquid
Agar agar comes from a type of seaweed, used to set milk and liquids
with low acidity (used by vegetarians and certain religious groups)
Carragheen Irish moss. A by-product called carrageenan (E407) is used
in ice-cream, jellies and frozen desserts as an emulsifier, thickener and
gelling agent (used by vegetarians)
Gelozone and Vege Geli setting agents

April 2006

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Food Ingredients

The food industry uses specialist ingredients and may use additives in
food products these are added in small amounts
E the letter E sometimes appears before an additive number. This
shows that the additive has been approved by the European Union
Preservatives protects against growth of micro-organisms (salt, sugar,
vinegar, sulphur dioxide
Colours improve or change the appearance (caramel (E150)
Flavours and flavour enhancers improve or replace those lost in the
cooking process (sugar, saccharin, aspartame, monosodium glutamate)
Emulsifiers and stabilisers stops food separating (Lecithin)
Antioxidants make foods last longer, stops fatty food going rancid
(vitamin C - ascorbic, vitamin E tocopherol)
Other additives raising agents, anti-caking agents, flour improvers,
thickening agents, nutrients, gelling agents
Are benefits and limitations for the food manufacturer and consumer
April 2006

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Food Ingredients
Components of foods

Components - used in the food industry to save preparation time and

Components help to produce a product that looks and tastes the same
every time
A component is used to describe an individual part of a product
Pre-manufactured standard components are ready prepared
ingredients or part of a product e.g. pizza bases, frozen pastry, preprepared pie fillings, ready grated cheese, cooked egg, fondant icing
Benefits of using these in the food industry
Cheaper than producing their own * May not have the equipment to
produce their own * Maintains consistency of the end product * Saves
time by reducing some of the manufacturing process * Reduces costs *
Keeps the assembly process as simple as possible
Limitations Special storage conditions may be needed * Could be
expensive * Supplier may be produce an inconsistent product * Reliant
on supplier to deliver and to produce product in hygienic conditions

April 2006

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Food Ingredients
Preservation part 1

Benefits of preserving food

Prevents micro-organisms (bacteria, moulds, yeasts) from multiplying
Enzymes cause deterioration. These must be destroyed to improve
the keeping quality of the food
Increased shelf life of a product
Increases the range of foods available
Convenience preserved food lasts longer which means fewer trips to
the shops
Allows the consumer to buy products out of season
Principle methods of preservation dehydration, freezing, irradiation
and chemical
Methods of preservation
Dehydration removal of water from a food
AFD, accelerated freeze-drying food is frozen and dried
Canning food and liquid in a can, sealed then heated at high temperature
April 2006

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Food Ingredients
Preservation part 2

MAP, modified atmosphere packaging adds carbon dioxide, nitrogen or

Blast freezing super quick freezing
Cook-frozen food is cooked, fast frozen then stored below 0C
Blast chilling food is chilled quickly by blasting cold air
Cook-chill food cooked, fast chilled in 1 hours, then stored at 0-3C
Vacuum packaging air is removed from the products packaging
Irradiation rays are passed from a radioactive beam through the food
which reduces the number of micro-organisms
Other methods Sodium nitrate (bacon manufacture), Salt (meat, fish),
Sugar (fruits), Vinegar (onions, chutney), Alcohol (fruit), Smoke (fish,
cheese, meats)

April 2006

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Food Ingredients
Smart foods

Smart or modern foods - respond to differences in temperature or

light and change in some way. These come about by the invention of new
or improved processes
Examples of smart or modern foods
Genetically modified foods
Modified starch
Meat alternatives e.g. textured vegetable protein (TVP), myco-protein
Probiotic yogurts/drinks
Modified enzymes e.g. chymosin
Synthetic flavours
Modified starch has been altered to perform additional functions e.g.
pre-gelatinised starch thickens instant desserts without heat * boiling
water can be added to gravy granules without it going lumpy * prevents
drip after a product has been defrosted * improves mouth-feel

April 2006

C. Budge


Food production
Systems and control

A system is a collection of
elements, which work together
to perform a task
Systems enable products to be
made: safely, hygienically, costeffectively, efficiently,
consistently, to an expected
Systems are put in place in the
food industry to control the
production of food products
A system has three main parts:
input, process and output
A fourth element in a system is
called feedback
April 2006

Elements of feedback
Weight and mix control
Trading standards regulations
Environmental health
Temperature control
Thermostatic and sensor control
Microbiological feedback
Sensory analysis feedback
Shelf life and storage time
Consumer feedback

C. Budge


Food production

HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points)

Food premises where food is prepared, stored or sold
Hazard anything that could harm the consumer
Some examples of hazards:
Physical e.g. glass in foods
Microbiological e.g. bacteria in foods
Chemical e.g. cleaning materials entering the product
Potential hazards are identified using a system known as HACCP
Quality assurance system set up before product is made identifies
the procedures for making a safe, quality product
Quality control steps in the making process to ensure the product
meets the standards specified. Any faulty products are removed
Food manufacturers and retailers need to make sure that all necessary
controls are put in place.
Controls storage & cooking temperatures, weight, size, shape of product,
pests, metal detection, machinery working correctly, food hygiene
April 2006

C. Budge


Food production
Jobs in the food industry

General manager in charge of everything

Product development technologist specification details are correctly
produced and followed
Production manager planning the time for production
Quality control manager sets up quality assurance procedures
Health and safety manager makes sure people are trained, follow
hygienic and safe procedures. Sets up HACCP system. Equipment safety
Product buyer finds where to buy ingredients for products, costs and
Food technologist equipment needed, the science of the ingredients,
legal implications, responsible for production methods
Packaging technologist types of packaging to use
Nutritionists examine nutritional content
Production line supervisor checks people are working efficiently and
the machinery is operating effectively
April 2006

C. Budge


Food Production
Product analysis

Product analysis is looking at all aspects of a product in detail

The product development team carry out product analysis on existing
Product analysis is carried out to:
Investigate how a product is made
Analyse the types and amounts of ingredients used
Gain ideas for new product development
Compare differences between brands
Check that a product matches its specification
Considerations when carrying out product analysis
Target market
Purpose of the product how and when would the product be used?
Ingredients and additives what are their functions?
Manufacturing processes used
April 2006

C. Budge