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International Journal of Clinical

Pharmacology & Toxicology (IJCPT)


Article name:
Acute and Sub acute Toxicity studies on Siddha Herbo-mineral Anti-arthritic formulation "Pooneeru
Diravagam" in experimental animal models:

Ethno pharmacological Relevance:60% of the world's population depends on traditional medicine. It

is in use for primary health care and general health care among rural, urban, semi urban in both developed
and developing countries parallel to the usage of western medicines. Pooneeru diravagam is an indigenous
Siddha medicine. There is a huge cry, tall fake claims regarding the safety and efficacy of Siddha
formulations. The present study is aimed to evaluate the safety of Pooneeru diravagam by determining any
toxicity changes through acute and sub-acute toxicity studies per oral administration in Swiss albino rats.
Materials and Methods:Acute toxicity study was carried out as per OECD Guideline-423 in healthy Swiss
albino female rat weighing 200245 gm. The Study was carried out in three female rats under fasting
condition; signs of toxicity were observed for every one hour for first 24 hours and every day for fortnight
from the beginning of the study. Sub acute toxicity study was carried out as per OECD guidelines-407 in
Swiss albino rats of either sex weighing 220245 gm of three groups of 6 rats each (Three male and three
female) at two dosage levels 0.2 ml and 0.4 ml of 28 days continuous drug administration (oral route).
Results:The animals were sacrificed on the 29th day and various blood biochemical parameters
haematological and clinical signs were measured. The organ morphology such as kidney, liver, heart, lungs,
spleen, pancreas, brain, ovaries and testes were processed for Histopathological study. The results of subacute toxicity on 29th day did not show any evidence of changes. Physiological, Hematological as well as
Histopathological parameters remained unaltered when compared with control animals throughout the
dosing period.
Conclusions:From the results it is concluded that usage of pooneeru diravagam at the dosage of 0.4 ml/kg
p.o is safe for the population suffering from rheumatoid arthritis.

Article name:
PPAR / Agonist in Management of Diabetic Dyslipidemia: A Review

Cardiovascular diseases are major contributors of mortality and morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes
mellitus (T2DM), while dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia are key modifiable risk factors to prevent coronary
artery disease (CAD). Although healthy diet, regular physical activity and maintaining a normal body weight
are advised, patients generally require single or multiple drugs to treat T2DM. Moreover, patients with
T2DM are prone to atherogenic diabetic dyslipidemia (ADD), which is characterized by elevated triglyceride,
small dense LDL particles and low High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Even though low-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) remains the primary target of therapy, non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL)
cholesterol is as an important parameter to be considered in clinical practice. Unfortunately, high-dose
statin therapy is not advised for long term, as it can increase risk of new onset T2DM. On the other hand,
glitazars are newer molecules having dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) / agonistic
action that can improve lipid profile with improvement of insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, the overall safety
of saroglitazar is acceptable due to minimal side effects, but improvement of cell function, effect on
insulin sensitivity by analysis of insulin resistance index by using the homeostatic model assessment
(HOMAIR) and long term cardiovascular benefits like atherosclerotic plaque stabilization or regression need
to be confirmed.
Link :

Article name:
Body Fluid Extraction of Toxic Dental Materials Made From Methyl
Methacrylate And HPLC Analysis Combined With Automated SPE
Methyl methacrylate polymer (PolyMMA) is widely used as the composite resin for the dental
plate. During the preparation process of PolyMMA by the polymerization reaction,
benzoylperoxide (BPO) and N,N-dimethylP-toluidine (DMPT) are added as the initiator and the
stimulator, respectively. These compounds exhibit toxicity as well as a residue potential, their
use raises concerns regarding human safety. The degree of elution into serum or saliva was
determined to evaluate risk to the user. Analysis was done by HPLC combined with solid-phase
extraction using a C-18 column. The eluted compounds were found to be in the order of 10 to 70
ppm .
Link :

Article name:
Toxic Compounds Analysis With High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Detected By Electro Chemical Detector (Ecd)
The principal area of application of high performance liquid chromatographyelectrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD) has been in the analysis of naturally-occurring
analytes, such as catecholamines, and pharmaceuticals in biological samples, HPLC-ECD
has also applied to the analysis of pesticides and other analytes of interest to the
toxicologist. In this paper, toxic area is described. In these, ammatoxins, aromatic amine,
nitro-compounds, algal toxins, fungal toxins, pesticides, veterinary drug and food
residues will be concretely described.
Link :

Article name:
Simulated Evaluation of Drug-Impaired Psychomotor Performance
The purpose of this placebo-controlled, randomized-crossover study was to evaluate a computer-based dividedattention task as a method for measure impaired human psychomotor performance. The ability of the dividedattention task to detect and differentiate was evaluated using single oral doses of placebo, caffeine and
diphenhydramine. Ten healthy men were the subjects of the study. Subject performance on divided-attention was
compared with tests of short-term memory and a set of visual analogue scales. The study also assessed potential
learning and boredom effects associated with the testing procedures. The results indicate a divided-attention
task can detect and differentiate effects of diphenhydramine from those of caffeine and placebo; however, it
cannot differentiate effects of caffeine at the doses utilized from that of placebo. Visual analogue scale results
corroborated these findings. Observations show that the short-term memory test was not sensitive to the effects
of study medication. While the results observed with this convenient, computer-based divided-attention task are
promising, additional studies need to be conducted with other classes of CNS-active drugs and over a range of

Article name:
A Possible Association of Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin with Weight Gain in the Valproic
Acid-Treated Female Patients with Epilepsy

Weight gain is a common adverse consequence of treatment with valproic acid. Although a low
sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) level was shown to be an independent risk factor for the
development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in the general population, there is
presently no data available regarding the association between the SHBG level and valproic acidinduced weight gain. The association between the plasma SHBG level and being overweight was
retrospectively investigated in 46 valproic acid-treated and 59 carbamazepine-treated patients
with epilepsy. Among the female patients treated with valproic acid, the plasma SHBG levels
tended to be negatively correlated with the gap between the body mass index value for each
patient and the upper limit of the normal range (adjusted partial regression coefficient = -6.86, P
= 0.041), and the SHBG levels were significantly lower in the overweight subjects than in the
normal weight subjects (P = 0.001). These associations were not observed among the valproic
acid-treated male patients or the carbamazepine-treated male and female patients. The plasma
SHBG levels may be therefore associated with being overweight in the valproic acid-treated
female patients.