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TOPIC 5

CORROSION AND
NON-FERROUS
METAL
PREPARED BY:
AZMARINI BINTI AHMAD NAZRI
PENSYARAH POLITEKNIK UNGKU OMAR

CORROSION

a)
b)
c)
d)

Is a process of formation of the compound of pure metal by


the chemical reaction between metallic surface and its
environment.
It is an oxidation process.
It causes loss of metal.
Example: formation of rust on the surface of iron, formation
of green film on the surface of copper.
The responsible factors for the corrosion of the metal are:
the metal itself;
The environment chemicals;
Temperature;
Design of the metals
Corrosion is often classified as wet and dry corrosion.

Dry Corrosion
Dry corrosion occurs in the absence of a liquid phase or
above dew point of the environment.
It is direct reaction of atmospheric gases like oxygen,
halogens, oxides of sulphur, oxides of nitrogen, hydrogen
sulphide and fumes of chemicals with metal.
Oxygen is mainly responsible for the corrosion of most
metallic substances when compared to other gases and
chemicals.
There are three main types of dry corrosion:
a) oxidation corrosion (reaction with oxygen)
b) corrosion by other gases
c) liquid metal corrosion

Difference between dry and wet corrosion

Dry corrosion
Corrosion occurs in the
absence of moisture.
It involves direct attack
of chemicals on the
metal surface.
The process is slow.
Corrosion products are
produced at the site of
corrosions.
The process of corrosion
is uniform

Wet corrosion
Corrosion occurs in
presence of conducting
medium.
It involves formation of
electrochemical cells.
It is a rapid process
Corrosion occurs at
anode but rust is
deposited at cathode.
It depends on the size

Electrochemical Corrosion
a)Oxidation Reduction Reaction
Eg : a piece of zinc metal placed in a beaker of dilute
hydrolic acid.
Result: the zinc dissolves or corrodes in the acid, and
zinc cloride and hydrogen gas are produced as indicated
by the chemical reaction:
Zn + 2HCl
ZnCl2 + H2
This reaction can be written in a simplified ionic form,
omitting the cloride ions, as
Zn + 2H+
Zn2+ + H2
This equation consists of two half reactions:
one for oxidation of the zinc
one for reduction of the hydrogen ions to form
hydrogen gas

These half reactions can be written as:


Oxidation: Zn
Zn2+ + 2eReduction : 2H+ + 2eH2
Oxidation reaction: metals form ions that go into
aqueous solution is called the anodic reaction. In
the anodic reaction electrons are produced that
remain in the metal, and the metal atoms form
cations .
Reduction reaction: a metal or nonmetal is reduced in
valence charge is cathodic reaction. In the cathode
reaction there is a consumption of electrons.
Electrochemical corrosion reactions involve oxidation
reactions that produce electrons and reduction
reactions that consume them.
Both oxidation and reduction reactions must occur at
the same time and same overall rate to prevent a
buildup of electric charge in the metal.

b) Galvanic Cells with Electrolytes


A galvanic cell can be constructed with two dissimilar
metal electrodes each immersed in a solution of their
own ions.
Eg: Zinc electrode immersed in a 1 M solution of Zn 2+
ions and another of copper immersed in 1 M solution
of Cu2+ with the solution at 25C
The two solutions are separated by a porous wall to
prevent their mechanical mixing, and an external wire
in series with a switch and a voltmeter connects on
the two electrodes.
When the switch is just closed, electrons flow from
the zinc electrode through the external wire to the
copper electrode and a voltage of -1.10V shows on
the voltmeter
Result: Zn electrode will be oxidized to Zn 2+ ions, and
Cu2+ ions will be reduced to Cu at the Cu electrode

Oxidation
E = -0.763 V
Reduction
E = -0.337 V
Overall Reaction
E = -1.100 V

Zn

Cu2+ + 2e-

Zn2+ + 2e-

Zn + Cu2+

Cu
Zn2+ + Cu

Assignment 2 :
A galvanic cell consists of an electrode of zinc in a 1 M
ZnSO4 solution and another of nickel in a 1 M NiSO4
solution. The two electrodes are separated by a porous
wall so that mixing of the solutions is prevented. An
external wire with a switch connects the two
electrodes. When the switch is just closed:
a)At which electrode does oxidation occur?
b)Which electrode is the anode of the cell?
c)Which electrode corrodes?
d)What is the emf of this galvanic cell when the switch
is just closed?

Phenomena in the Electrochemical Series


Eg : Rusting of iron
If a piece of iron is immersed in oxygenated water,
ferrite hydroxite [Fe(OH)3] will form in its surface.
The oxidation reaction:
anodic reaction : Fe
Fe2+ + 2eThe reduction reaction:
cathodic reaction : O2 + 2H2O + 4e4OH The overall reaction :
2Fe + 2H2O + O2
2Fe2+ + 4OH2Fe(OH)2

Types of Corrosion:
a)Pitting Corrosion
Is a form of localized corrosive attack that produces
holes or pits in a metal.
Pitting is often difficult to detect because small pits
may be covered by corrosion products.
Pitting usually requires an initiation period, but once
started, the pits grow at an ever-increasing rate.
Eg: The propagation process for a pit in an aerated
saltwater environment.
The anodic reaction of the metal at the bottom of the
pit.
The cathodic reaction takes place at the metal surface
surrounding the pit.

b) Crevice reaction

Can occur in crevices and under shielded surfaces


where stagnant solutions can exist.
It occurs under gaskets, rivets, and bolts, between
valve disks and seats and in many other similar
situations.
Occurs in many alloy systems such as stainless steels
and titanium, aluminum and copper alloys.

c) Intergranular Corrosion

Is localized corrosion attack at and/or adjacent to the


grain boundaries of an alloy.
If a metal corrodes uniformly, the grain boundaries
will only slightly more reactive than the matrix.
However, under other conditions, the grain-boundary
regions can be reactive, resulting in intergranular
corrosion that causes loss of strength of the alloy and
even disintegration at the grain boundaries.

d) Stress Corrosion

Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of metals refers to


cracking caused by the combined effects of tensile
stress and a specific corrosion environment acting
on the metal.
During SCC the metals surface is usually attacked
very little while highly localized cracks propagate
through the metal section.
The stresses that cause SCC can be residual or
applied.
High residual stresses that cause SCC may result, for
example, from thermal stresses introduced by
unequal cooling rates, poor mechanical design for
stresses, phase transformations during heat
treatment, cold working and welding.

Control Corrosion
a)Anode and Cathode Corrosion
i.Anodic protection
Based on the formation of protective passive films on
metal and alloy surfaces by externally impressed
anodic currents.
Controlled anodic currents by a device called a
potentiostat can be applied to protect metals that
passivate such as austenitic stainless steels, to make
them passive and hence lower their corrosion rate in a
corrosive environment.
In this method, an external d. c. power supply is used.
The. negative terminal of power supply is connected to
underground component and positive to an inert
anode. e. g. graphite. Therefore, current passes to

Usually, underground tanks and pipes are protected by impressed current


method.

ii. Cathodic Protection

Cathodic protection is also achieved by coupling a


component to metal which is more anodic. This metal is
called as sacrificial anode, e.g. Magnesium is anodic
with respect to steel and corrodes when galvanically
coupled. Magnesium gets consumed to protect the
steel, hence it is called as sacrificial anode. These
anodes are used in the following application;

Protection of hull of ship.


Domestic and industrial water heater.
Elevated water storage tank
Underground pipes
Boilers

Sacrificial anode for cathode protection of


(a) Underground pipe and (b) Domestic water heater

b) Material Selection
Metallic Materials
i. For reducing or nonoxidizing conditions such as airfree acids and aqueous solutions, nickel and copper
alloys are often used.
ii. For oxidizing condition, chromium-containing alloys
are used.
iii. For extremely powerful oxidizing conditions,
titanium and its alloys are commonly used.
Nonmetallic Materials polymeric materials such
as plastic and rubbers are weaker, softer and in
general less resistant to strong inorganic acids than
steels. Ceramic materials are excellent corrosion
and high-temperature resistance but have the
disadvantages of being brittle with low tensile
strengths.

c) Coatings
i. Metallic Coating
the metal will be protected with applied as thin
coatings to separate the corrosive environment from
the metal.
Metal coatings are sometimes applied so that they
can serve as sacrificial anodes that can corrode
instead of the underlying metal.
Eg: the zinc coating on steel to make galvanized
steel is anodic to the steel and corrodes sacrificially.
ii. Inorganic Coatings (Ceramic and Glass)
Coat steel with a ceramic coating to attain a smooth,
durable finish.
Steel is commonly coated with a porcelain coating
that of a thin layer of glass fused to the steel

Continue.
iii. Organic Coatings
Paints, varnishes and many other organic polymeric
materials are commonly used to protect metals
from corrosive environments.
These materials provide thin, tough and durable
barriers to protect the substrate metal from
corrosive environments.

d) Design

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

The engineering designer must consider the


materials along with the necessary mechanical,
electrical, and thermal property requirements.
All these considerations must be balanced with
economic limitations.
Some important general design rules:
Allow for the penetration action of corrosion along
with the mechanical strength requirements when
considering the thickness of the metal used.
Weld rather than containers to reduce crevice
corrosion.
Use galvanically similar metals for the whole
structure.
Avoid sharp bends in piping system where flow
occurs.

NON-FERROUS METALS
Non-ferrous naturally means a metal or alloy which
contains little or no iron.
Common non-ferrous metals are aluminum, copper and
magnesium.
Properties: as corrosion resistance, high thermal and
electrical conductivity, low density and ease of
fabrication.
Application: aluminum for cooking utensils and aircraft
bodies, copper wire for electricity, copper tubing for
residential water supply, zinc for galvanized sheet metal
for car bodies, titanium for jet-engine turbine blades and
for orthopedic implants and tantalum for rocket engines.

Aluminum
Characteristic:
a)High strength-to-weight ratio
b)high thermal and electrical conductivity
c)good corrosion resistance
d)good manufacturing properties.
Application:
a)Containers and packaging
b)Buildings and other types of construction
c)Transportation (aircraft and aerospace applications,
buses, automobiles, railroad cars and marine craft)
d)Electrical applications
e)Consumers durables (Appliances, cooking utensils
and furniture)
f)Portable tools

Copper
Copper are among the best conductors of electricity
and heat, and they have good corrosion resistance.
They can be processed easily by various forming,
machining, casting and joining techniques.
Characteristic:
a)High electrical and thermal conductivity
b)good corrosion resistance
c)good manufacturing properties.
Application:
a)Electrical and electronic components
b)Springs
c)Plumbing
d)Heat exchangers
e)Marine hardware
f)Consumer goods(such as cooking utensils, jewelry
and other decorative objects.)

Zinc
Zinc is bluish-white in color and is the metal fourth
most utilized industrially, after iron, aluminium and
copper.
Characteristic:
a)Has relatively low melting temperature about 419C
b)Fair conductor of electricity
Application:
a)Zinc serves as an anode and protects the
steel(cathode) from corrosive attack.
b)Zinc is used for galvanizing steel against corrosion
c)Alloying element; brass, for example is an alloy of
copper and zinc.
d)Zinc based alloy are used extensively in die casting
for making such products as fuel pumps.