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# CHAPTER 1(a)

FORCES ON MATERIAL

## MUHAMMAD HAFIZZUDDIN BIN MD TENI

Learning Outcome
At the end of this lecture, student should be

able to;
Understand the concept of strength of

material
Define the types of forces
Understand stress and strain
Solve problems related to stress and strain

What is strength of
material?
Subject which deals with loads, deformations
and the forces acting on the material
Important in understanding;
mechanical behavior/properties of material
safe design of all structures- buildings,

## bridges, machines, ships, airplanes etc..

maintenance

- Forces which is fix (not moving)
- A good example of this is a person seen

## below. He is holding a book but he is not

moving. The force downwards is STATIC.

- Forces which is moving / changing
- A good example of a dynamic load is the

## person below. He is carrying a weight of books

but walking. The force is moving or DYNAMIC.

- Forces which is happen immediately
- Example: Car crashed the lamp pole and

## Example: Wind WheelExample: Spring

Types of Forces
i) Tensile Force (+ve)
- Force that tends to stretch / lengthen a
material on which it acts.
- Example: The rope is in tension as the two
people pull on it. This stretching puts the rope
in tension.

## ii) Compressive Force (-ve)

- Force that tends to squeeze / crush a material
- Example: The weight lifter finds that his body

## is compressed by the weights he is holding

Exercise
The bracket holding up the hanging
made by heating up the steel until
red hot and then bending it at 90
degrees.
1. What is the force exerting on the
bracket at point A?
2. What type of force is the chain
under?
3. What type of force are the wires
holding the plant pot under?
4. What force is acting on the wall at
point B'?
5. As more weight is added to the
plant pot the bracket begins to bend
too much. How could the bracket be
strengthened?
6. How could the bracket be fixed to

## iii) Shear Force

- Force that tends to slide one face of the
material to another face.
- Example: Simple scissors. The two handles
put force in different directions on the pin that
holds the two parts together. The force
applied to the pin is called shear force.

STRESS
Internal resistance which react to external

## forces subjected to the material .

Ratio between the applied force, F and crosssectional area, A of the material.
The symbol is (sigma)
Unit in N/m2 or Pa

Stress

## The person in the diagram is sat on

the mono-bicycle and the air filled
tyre is under great pressure. The air
pressure inside it pushes back against

STRAIN
When forces act on a body, it undergoes some

deformation.
Ratio between deformation per unit length
The symbol is (epsilon)
Strain has no unit

## For example, a 2.0" titanium bar

that has been stretched to 2.2" is
said to have experienced a tensile
strain of 0.1, or 10%.

## Exercise: Stress and

Strain
1. A rectangular bar having a cross-sectional area of

## 75mm2 has a tensile force of 15 kN applied to it.

Draw the figure and determine the stress in the bar.
2. A circular bar having 25 mm diameter being applied
a compressive force of 100 kN. Determine the
stress produce.
3. A bar has initial 1.6m length and after subjected to
load 30 kN, the length become 1.4m. Determine the
strain and the percentage strain.
4. A wire length 2.5m has a percentage strain of
0.012% when loaded with a tensile force.
Determine the deformation of the wire.

## 5. A pipe has an outside diameter

of 25mm and inside diameter
15mm and length 0.4 m and it