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POWER SYSTEM

OPERATION AND CONTROL


S.H.ABIDI

STRUCTURE

Current Scenario
Despite

having installed power generation capacity of


225 GW and power demand of 135 GW (as of May
2013).
India faced a peak power deficit of 9% (12 GW)
Power shortages have adversely affected the country's
economy. In 2012-13, power shortages in India
accounted for a 6 GDP loss of USD 68 billion (0.4%
of GDP) .
Impacting multiple industries like agriculture,
manufacturing, services etc. Improvement of this sector
is essential for the economic well-being
of the country and enhancement of the quality of life of
citizens.

Future Plans

In the last 5 years, power generation capacity


has grown by ~50%, whereas transmission
capacity has increased by ~30% .
As per the 12th Five Year Plan(2012-2017), the
future expansion in power
generation capacity
in India is planned around 88GW

In order to meet this capacity, investment in the

transmission sector needs to be increased. Overall, an


addition of 90,000 km of 765-220 kV lines.
154,000 MVA of substation capacity and 27,350 MW
of national grid capacity is required in order to meet
the 12th Five Year Plan .
For this purpose, an investment of USD 35billion is
planned in the power transmission sector. Of this, about
USD 19 billion is planned to come from Power Grid
Corporation of India Limited .The remaining USD 16
billion,~46% of the total investments, needs to be secured
from private players.

Power Grid

Grid management on regional bases was


started in mid sixties.
Initially, State grids were inter-connected to
form regional grid and India was demarcated
into 5 regions namely Northern, Eastern,
Western, North Eastern and Southern region.
In October 1991 North Eastern and Eastern
grids were connected.
In March 2003 WR and ER-NER were
interconnected.

August 2006 North and East grids were


interconnected thereby 4 regional grids Northern,
Eastern, Western and North Eastern grids are
synchronously connected forming central grid operating
at one frequency.
On 31st December 2013, Southern Region was
connected to Central Grid in Synchronous mode with
the commissioning of 765kV Raichur-Solapur
Transmission line thereby achieving

ONE NATION-ONE GRID-ONE FREQUENCY

National Grid
Five Regional Grids
Two Frequencies

October 1991
East and Northeast
synchronized

August 2006
North synchronized
With Central Grid

March 2003
West synchronized
With East & Northeast

NEW Grid
South
Grid

Central Grid

North
West
South

3.2 Million Sq. Km Area

East
Northe
ast

Five Regional Grids


Five Frequencies

Installed Capacity 211 GW

The current frequency band is between 49.7 Hz


and 50.2 Hz.
The countrys apex power sector regulator has
suggested a grid frequency band of 49.5Hz and
50.05Hz

Peculiarities of Regional Grids in


India
REGIONAL
GRIDS

Deficit Region
Snow fed run-of the river hydro

NORTHER
N REGION

WESTE
RNREGI
ON
SOUTHER
N REGION

CHICKEN-NECK
NORTHEASTERN
REGION

EASTER
N
REGION

Highly weather sensitive load


Adverse weather conditions: Fog &
Dust Storm

Very low load


High hydro potential
Evacuation problems
Low load
High coal reserves
Pit head base load plants
High Industrial load and
agricultural load
High (40% agricultural load)
Monsoon dependent hydro

10

E1E2 Sin
P
X
P

E1 E 2 Sin

1 2

Advantages And Disadvantages


of Interconnected System
Reliability
Economy
Instability

Operational objectives
The System must be able to meet the
continually changing load demand for active
and reactive power.
The system should supply energy at
minimum cost and with minimum ecological
impacts.
The quality of power should meet certain
minimum standards .

Definition of States and control actions


System operation in steady state is governed
by equations which express:
1. Real and Reactive power balance at each
node(Equality Constraints)
2. Limitation of physical equipment, such as
current and voltages must not exceed
minimum limits(Inequality constraints)

States of Power System

A normal(secure)state is the ideal


operating condition, wherein all the
equipments are operating within their
design limits and the demanded load is
being met.
Power system can withstand a contingency
without violation of any of the constraint.
Power system is secure.

The System enters the alert


state if the security levels
falls below a certain limit of
adequacy or if the possibility
of a disturbance increases
because of adverse weather
conditions
such
as
the
approach of severe storms.

If the disturbance is very severe ,the


extremis state may result.
The system enters the emergency
state if a sufficiently severe
disturbance occurs .
The restorative state represent a
condition in which control action is
being taken to connect all facilities and
to restore system

Power system Operating


states
Normal

Restorative

In
extremis

Alert

Emergency

Transition from Alert to


Emergency state

Hierarchy of control
Energy Control Centre
Generating Unit control
Transmission control

The Scheduling of references of many


controllers are set by Energy Control
Centers.
The scheduling of references may have
economic and technical consequences.
The ownership of generation, transmission
and distribution may be with different
entities.
There may be more than one energy centre
but a certain hierarchy is strictly defined.

Thank You