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EY E

Constrictor
pupillae :Also called the iris
sphincter muscle or
sphincter pupillae.

Formed of circular

muscle fibres .
Contraction causes

the constriction of
pupil.

Dilator pupillae:Also called the

pupillary dilator
muscle.
Formed of radial

muscle fibers.
Contraction of this

muscle causes
dilatation of pupil.

Parasympathetic

Sympathetic

Intraocular fl
uid: Fluid present in the space within the

eyeball.
Maintenance of shape of eyeball
Two types of fluid

1. vitreous humor
2. aqueous humor

V itreous hum or : Also known as vitreous body.


Present behind lens in the space b/w lens & retina.
Viscous & Gelatinous.
Formed by a fine fibrillar network of proteoglycan

molecules .
Major substances are albumin & hyaluronic acid

entering from blood by means of diffusion.


Maintain the shape of eyeball.

A queous hum or: Thin fluid present in front of lens in the

space b/w lens & cornea.

Properties of Aqueous humor: Volume : 0.13 ml.


Alkaline with a pH of 7.5
Viscosity : 1.029
Refractory index : 1.34

Com position ofaqueous hum or: Water : 98.7 %


Solids : 1.3%

a) 0rganic
1.Albumin
2.Globulin
3.Glucose
4.Pyruvate
5.Lactate
6.urea

b) inorganic
1.Sodium
2.Calcium
3.Potassium
4.Magnesium
5.Chlorides
6.Phosphates
7.bicarbonates

LESIO N S O F VISU AL PATH W AY

RightHomonymous
Left
Homonymous

1) LESIONS OF OPTIC NERVE :


Causes:
optic atrophy
indirect optic neuropathy
acute optic neuritis
traumatic avulsion of optic nerve.
Characterised by: complete blindness in
affected eye.
Eg. Right optic nerve
involvement

3)Central lesions of chiasma (sagittal)


causes:
suprasellar aneurysm
tumors of pituitary gland
craniopharyngioma
suprasellar meningioma & glioma of 3rd

ventricle.
third ventricular dilatation due to
hydrocephalus.
chronic chiasmal arachnoiditis.
Characterised by:
Bitemporal hemianopia

obstructive

4)Lateral chiasmal lesions :


causes:
Distension of 3rd ventricle causing pressure

on each side of optic chiasma


Atheroma of carotids & posterior
communicating artery.
Characterised by
Binasal hemianopia

5)Lesions of optic tract :


Causes:
Syphilitic meningitis/ gumma.
Tuberculosis
Tumors of optic thalamus
Aneurysm of superior cerebellar or

posterior cerebral arteries.


Characterised by :
homonymous hemianopia

6)Lesions of lateral geniculate body :


leads to homonymous hemianopia.

7)Lesions of optic radiations :


Causes:
Vascular occlusion
Primary & secondary tumors
Trauma
Characterised by :

8)Lesions of upper or lower part of


visual cotrex
leads to inferior or superior
homonymous hemianopia.

P U P ILLA RY R EFLEX ES : They are the visceral reflexes

which alter the size of pupil .


Pupillary
They
classified into 3 types :
Light are
reflex

LIG H T R EFLEX :(P upillary light ref e


lx)
It is the reflex in which the pupils
constricts when light is flashed into the
eyes. It is of 2 types :
1. Direct light
reflex :
There is
constriction of
pupil when light is
thrown into that
eye.

2.

Indirect light reflex :


Constriction of
pupil in both eyes. ie,
constriction of pupil
occurs in the opposite
eye also even though no
light rays falls on that
eye.

LIG H T R EFLEX :-

C O LO R B LIN D N ESS: Failure to appreciate one or more

colors.
It is common in 8% of males & 0.4% of

females.
It can be hereditary or acquired.
Mostly it is an inherited sex linked

recessive condition.

C auses of acquired color blindness:1. Trauma of eye due to stroke or accidents


2. Chronic diseases :
a)

Glaucoma

b)

Degeneration of macula

c)

Retinitis

d)

Sickle cell anaemia

e)

Leukemia

f)

Diabetes

g)

Liver diseases

h)

Parkinsons disease

i)

Alzheimerss disease

j)

Multiple sclerosis

3. Alcoholism

4. Drugs:
a. Antibiotics
b. Antihypertensive drugs
c. Anti tuberculosis drugs
d. Barbiturates
e. Drugs used to treat to treat psychological problems

& neural disorders.

5. Industrial toxins or stong chemicals :


a)

Fertilizers

b) Carbon monoxide
c)

Carbon disulphide

d) Chemicals with high lead content.

6. Aging : occurs after 60 yrs

Color blindness
1.
2. Dichromatism 3.
Monochromatis
Trichromatism
m
( achromatopsia)
a. Rod
Monochromatism

a. Protonopia

a. Protanomaly

b. Cone
Monochromatism

b. Deuteranopia

b. Deuteranomaly

c. Tritanopia

c. Tritanomaly

Test for color blindness:1. By using Ishiharas color charts


2. By using colored wool
3. By using Edridge Green

lantern.