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Reservoir Capacity

and Yield

CAPACITY CURVE
Topographic map(with contours at 0.5-1m
spacing)
Dam catchment area
Dam site and dam layout

HOW TO PRODUCE A CAPACITY CURVE

METHODS OF PRODUCING THE


CAPACITY CURVE
End areas method
Trapezoidal
Prismoidal

END AREAS METHOD FOR


CALCULATING THE VOLUMES.

Elevation
Contour
difference
(m)
(m)

Area
(m2)

Cum. Volume
Volume (m3)
(m3)

1195.4

1196

0.6

37774.91

11332.473

11332.473

1197

232018.04 134896.475

146228.948

1198

411241.07 321629.555

456526.03

1199

606791.35

509016.21

830645.765

1200

915268.41

761029.88

1270046.09

DRAW THE CAPACITY CURVE


Capacity Curve
1201

1200

1199

1198

1197

1196

1195

1194

1193

200000

400000

600000

800000

1000000

1200000

1400000

RESERVOIR SIZING
Determine active storage capacity using Ripple diagram or the
mass diagram.
Plot with time as abscissa and cumulative inflow as ordinate.
For constant release Rt, line with slope Rt placed tangential.
Maximum distance between the two gives ACTIVE
STORAGE

MASS CURVE ANALYSIS

Estimating Active Storage Capacity


Mass Balance Equation of Reservoirs
St-1 + Qt Rt Lt = St
Where
St-1 is storage at end of previous time interval
St is storage at end of current time interval
Qt is inflows at current time interval
Rt is release at current time interval
Lt is loss (evap/seepage) at current time interval
Reservoirs have a fixed storage capacity, K, so
St <= K for each interval

RESERVOIR YIELD
Def: This is the volume of water that can be
abstracted from the reservoir per given period of
time.
Often expressed as a ratio of % of mean annual flow.
E.g., 70% yield means the reservoir can provide a
regulated release of 70% of the mean annual flow.
A risk factor of 4% is used in Zimbabwe for
losses(evaporation and infiltration)

STEPS TO DETERMINE THE YIELD


1. Prepare the mass curve from the inflow hydrograph
2. Draw tangents of the mass inflow curve from the
point of the FSL
3. Measure the slopes of tangents
4. Determine the slope of flattest tangent
5. Draw the mass demand curve from the slope of the
flattest tangent. This gives the yield of reservoir

EXAMPLE

SEDIMENTATION

WHAT IS RESERVOIR SEDIMENTATION?


The gradual filling up of the reservoir by
fragmental geological material transported by
water

SOURCE OF RESERVOIR SEDIMENTATION


EROSION
Wind
Runoff
Raindrop
Sheet

EROSION ACCELERATORS/AIDS

Nature of soil
Topography
Vegetative Cover
Rainfall Intensity

MECHANISM OF SEDIMENTATION
Top set bed
Fore set bed
Bottom set bed
Density current bed

EFFECT OF SEDIMENTATION
Loss of Useful Storage(reduces the yield od the
reservoir)
Reduction of the life of the reservoir
Degradation
Aggradation
Deposition

MITIGATION
Pre-construction methods
Site Selection
The ratio of reservoir capacity and drainage size
Design of reservoir
Vegetative screens

POST CONSTRUCTION
Dredging
Mechanical stirring
Erosion control
Levees or flood walls

ESTIMATING LIFE OF A RESERVOIR


Capacity Inflow Ratio (C.I.R) = Reservoir
Capacity/ annual Inflow
Trap efficiency = Sediment retained/ total
sediment brought in

ESTIMATING LIFE OF A RESERVOIR


Example
A reservoir has a capacity of 5 x 10^6 m3. The
reservoir has a drainage area of 190 km2. Average
annual runoff from the watershed is 390mm. Which
brings in sediment of 600m3/km2. Determine the
time to reduce the reservoir to 1 x 10^6m3.

ESTIMATING LIFE OF A RESERVOIR


Capaci
ty
inflow
ratio

0.07

Trap
81
efficienc
y

0.05

0.04

0.027
0

0.013

78

74

71

48

ESTIMATING LIFE OF A RESERVOIR


Capac C.I.R
ity
X10^6

Trap
eff

Mean
Trap
eff

Volume of
Sediment
Trapped

Chang
e in
Volum
e

Number of
Years

0.07

81

0.05

78

79.5

90630

11

0.04

74

76

86240

11.6

0.027

71

72.5

82640

12.1

0.013

48

60

68400

14.6

Total number of years

49.5