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KOLEJ UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI TUN HUSSEIN ONN

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

FLUID POWER ENGINEERING


CHAPTER 8 : SHOCK ABSORBER

FAISAL IKRAM BIN ABD SAMAD  


AK981156 
4 BWJ 

LECTURER : DR. ING. IR DARWIN


SEBAYANG
FRONT SUSPENSION SYSTEM
1.0 INTRODUCTION

Sistem suspensi sesebuah kenderaan merupakan aspek yang sangat


penting untuk mangasingkan badan kenderaan dari hentakan dan
getaran yang berpunca dari keadaan jalan raya yang tidak rata.

Sistem suspensi juga menentukan sama ada pemanduan sesebuah


kenderaan berada di dalam keadaan stabil atau pun tidak stabil.

Selain itu, pemilihan parameters untuk sistem suspensi juga menentukan


keselesaan penumpang.
2.0 MATHEMATICAL MODEL

Quarter Free body


car model diagrams

m1 m1
x1
c1 k1 . .

m2 c1 ( x2 − x1 ) k1 ( x2 − x1 )
x2
k2 m2
y
k 2 ( y − x2 )
Equation of motion

.. . .
m1 x1 = c1 ( x2 − x1 ) + k1 ( x2 − x1 )
.. . .
m2 x2 = −c1 ( x2 − x1 ) − k1 ( x2 − x1 ) + k2 ( y − x2 )
3.0 STATE SPACE REPRESENTATION
The equations of motion in terms of the displacements from equilibrium, x1 and x2, are
.. . .
m1 x1 = c1 ( x2 − x1 ) + k1 ( x2 − x1 ) 2.0
.. . .
m2 x2 = −c1 ( x2 − x1 ) − k1 ( x2 − x1 ) + k2 ( y − x2 ) 2.1

Divide equation 2.0 by m1 and equation 2.1 by m2 to obtain


.. c1  . .  k1
x1 =  x 2 − x1  + ( x2 − x1 ) 2.2
m1   m1

.. c1  . .
 k1 k2
x2 = −  x 2 − x1  − ( x 2 − x1 ) + ( y − x 2 ) 2.3
m2   m2 m2
Then define
. .
z1 = x1 , z 2 = x1 , z 3 = x 2 , and z 4 = x2
The input is the road surface displacement y (t). Note that these definitions imply that
. .
z1 = z2 and z 3 = z4
.. . ..
Note also that , x1 = z 2 and
x 2 = z4
Substitute these variables into equation 2.2 and equation 2.3 to obtain

. c1 k1
z2 = ( z4 − z2 ) + ( z3 − z1 ) 2.4
m1 m1

c1
( z4 − z2 ) − k1 ( z3 − z1 ) + k2 ( y − z3 )
.
z4 = − 2.5
m2 m2 m2
These four equations are the state variable model. They can be displayed in
matrix vector form as follows.

.   0 1 0 0 
0 
 z1   k1 c1 k1 c1 
 .  − −   z1  0 
 z 2  =  m1 m1 m1 m1   z2   
.   0  ⋅   + 0  y ( t )
z3  
0 0 1   z3   
 .   k1 c1  k1 k2  c1   z   k2 
 z 4   m −  +  −   4   m2 
 2 m2  m2 m2  m2 

 z1 
 
 x1  1 0 0 0  z 2 
 x  = 0 0 1 0  ⋅  z 
 2   3
 
z4 
Thus, the input matrices to be

 0 1 0 0 
 k c1 k1 c1 
− 1 − 
 m1 m1 m1 m1 
A=  
 0 0 0 1 
 k c1 k k  c1 
 1 −  1 + 2  − 
 m2 m2  m2 m2  m2 

0 
0 
 
B= 0 
 
 k2 
 m2 
To plot and the output matrices to be

1 0 0 0
C= 0 0 1 0 
 

D= [0 0]
4.0 PRODUCING TRANSFER FUNCTION

METHODS;

Block diagram reduction


Laplace transformation and reduction of differential equations
Directly from the state space formulation by

Y ( s)
= C ( sI − A) B + D
−1

U ( s)
Thus the transfer function are:

Transfer function from disturbance to car body vertical position

k2 ( c1.s + k1 )
x1 = G1 ( s ). y = .y
( )( )
m1.s + c1.s + k1 m2 .s + k2 + m1. .s .( c1.s + k1 )
2 2 2

k 2 c1.s + k1k 2
H1 ( s ) =
m1m2 s 4 + ( c1m2 + m1c1 ) s 3 + ( m1k 2 + k1m2 + m1k1 ) s 2 + c1k 2 s + k1k 2

Transfer function from disturbance to wheel body vertical position

x2 = G2 ( s ). y =
(
k2 m1.s 2 + c1.s + k1 ) .y
( )( )
m1.s + c1.s + k1 m2 .s + k2 + m1..s .( c1.s + k1 )
2 2 2

k 2 m1.s + k 2 c1s + k 2 k1
H 2 ( s) =
m1m2 s 4 + ( c1m2 + m1c1 ) s 3 + ( m1k 2 + k1m2 + m1k1 ) s 2 + c1k 2 s + k1k 2
Step Response

1.4
KOCO
KO=24400, CO=3167
KDCD
1.2 KD=30400, CD=4167
KC=27400, CC=3667 KCCC

0.8

Amplitude
0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.5 1 1.5
Time (sec)

KCCC and KDCD = Produce lower %OS and having shorter settling time. Thus
its will give a better design for the Proton Wira suspension
system.
Time response for different suspension stiffness and damping coefficient.
- front right suspension

KCCC KDCD KOCO

Peak time Tp (s) 0.275 0.261 0.303

Peak amplitude 1.34 1.33 1.36

% OS 34.3 33.5 35.6

Settling time, Ts (s) 0.875 0.809 0.945

Rise time, Tr (s) 0.0953 0.0876 0.105


ROAD DISTURBANCE

GOOD HANDLING SUSPENSION TOO HARD SUSPENSION

• small % OS and short settling time. • big % OS and too short settling
time

Body motion

Wheel motion

TOO SOFT SUSPENSION


ACTIVE SUSPENSION SYSTEM
• big % OS and longer
settling time