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# KOLEJ UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI TUN HUSSEIN ONN

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

## FLUID POWER ENGINEERING

CHAPTER 8 : SHOCK ABSORBER

AK981156
4 BWJ

## LECTURER : DR. ING. IR DARWIN

SEBAYANG
FRONT SUSPENSION SYSTEM
1.0 INTRODUCTION

## Sistem suspensi sesebuah kenderaan merupakan aspek yang sangat

penting untuk mangasingkan badan kenderaan dari hentakan dan
getaran yang berpunca dari keadaan jalan raya yang tidak rata.

## Selain itu, pemilihan parameters untuk sistem suspensi juga menentukan

keselesaan penumpang.
2.0 MATHEMATICAL MODEL

## Quarter Free body

car model diagrams

m1 m1
x1
c1 k1 . .

m2 c1 ( x2 − x1 ) k1 ( x2 − x1 )
x2
k2 m2
y
k 2 ( y − x2 )
Equation of motion

.. . .
m1 x1 = c1 ( x2 − x1 ) + k1 ( x2 − x1 )
.. . .
m2 x2 = −c1 ( x2 − x1 ) − k1 ( x2 − x1 ) + k2 ( y − x2 )
3.0 STATE SPACE REPRESENTATION
The equations of motion in terms of the displacements from equilibrium, x1 and x2, are
.. . .
m1 x1 = c1 ( x2 − x1 ) + k1 ( x2 − x1 ) 2.0
.. . .
m2 x2 = −c1 ( x2 − x1 ) − k1 ( x2 − x1 ) + k2 ( y − x2 ) 2.1

## Divide equation 2.0 by m1 and equation 2.1 by m2 to obtain

.. c1  . .  k1
x1 =  x 2 − x1  + ( x2 − x1 ) 2.2
m1   m1

.. c1  . .
 k1 k2
x2 = −  x 2 − x1  − ( x 2 − x1 ) + ( y − x 2 ) 2.3
m2   m2 m2
Then define
. .
z1 = x1 , z 2 = x1 , z 3 = x 2 , and z 4 = x2
The input is the road surface displacement y (t). Note that these definitions imply that
. .
z1 = z2 and z 3 = z4
.. . ..
Note also that , x1 = z 2 and
x 2 = z4
Substitute these variables into equation 2.2 and equation 2.3 to obtain

. c1 k1
z2 = ( z4 − z2 ) + ( z3 − z1 ) 2.4
m1 m1

c1
( z4 − z2 ) − k1 ( z3 − z1 ) + k2 ( y − z3 )
.
z4 = − 2.5
m2 m2 m2
These four equations are the state variable model. They can be displayed in
matrix vector form as follows.

.   0 1 0 0 
0 
 z1   k1 c1 k1 c1 
 .  − −   z1  0 
 z 2  =  m1 m1 m1 m1   z2   
.   0  ⋅   + 0  y ( t )
z3  
0 0 1   z3   
 .   k1 c1  k1 k2  c1   z   k2 
 z 4   m −  +  −   4   m2 
 2 m2  m2 m2  m2 

 z1 
 
 x1  1 0 0 0  z 2 
 x  = 0 0 1 0  ⋅  z 
 2   3
 
z4 
Thus, the input matrices to be

 0 1 0 0 
 k c1 k1 c1 
− 1 − 
 m1 m1 m1 m1 
A=  
 0 0 0 1 
 k c1 k k  c1 
 1 −  1 + 2  − 
 m2 m2  m2 m2  m2 

0 
0 
 
B= 0 
 
 k2 
 m2 
To plot and the output matrices to be

1 0 0 0
C= 0 0 1 0 
 

D= [0 0]
4.0 PRODUCING TRANSFER FUNCTION

METHODS;

## Block diagram reduction

Laplace transformation and reduction of differential equations
Directly from the state space formulation by

Y ( s)
= C ( sI − A) B + D
−1

U ( s)
Thus the transfer function are:

## Transfer function from disturbance to car body vertical position

k2 ( c1.s + k1 )
x1 = G1 ( s ). y = .y
( )( )
m1.s + c1.s + k1 m2 .s + k2 + m1. .s .( c1.s + k1 )
2 2 2

k 2 c1.s + k1k 2
H1 ( s ) =
m1m2 s 4 + ( c1m2 + m1c1 ) s 3 + ( m1k 2 + k1m2 + m1k1 ) s 2 + c1k 2 s + k1k 2

## Transfer function from disturbance to wheel body vertical position

x2 = G2 ( s ). y =
(
k2 m1.s 2 + c1.s + k1 ) .y
( )( )
m1.s + c1.s + k1 m2 .s + k2 + m1..s .( c1.s + k1 )
2 2 2

k 2 m1.s + k 2 c1s + k 2 k1
H 2 ( s) =
m1m2 s 4 + ( c1m2 + m1c1 ) s 3 + ( m1k 2 + k1m2 + m1k1 ) s 2 + c1k 2 s + k1k 2
Step Response

1.4
KOCO
KO=24400, CO=3167
KDCD
1.2 KD=30400, CD=4167
KC=27400, CC=3667 KCCC

0.8

Amplitude
0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.5 1 1.5
Time (sec)

KCCC and KDCD = Produce lower %OS and having shorter settling time. Thus
its will give a better design for the Proton Wira suspension
system.
Time response for different suspension stiffness and damping coefficient.
- front right suspension

## GOOD HANDLING SUSPENSION TOO HARD SUSPENSION

• small % OS and short settling time. • big % OS and too short settling
time

Body motion

Wheel motion

## TOO SOFT SUSPENSION

ACTIVE SUSPENSION SYSTEM
• big % OS and longer
settling time