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## Deliverables for the Lecture

Material Strength & Stiffness (StressStrain Relations)
Equilibrium & Free Body Diagrams
Mohr Circle
Shear Forces & Bending Moments
Torsion
Stress Concentration

## Material Strength &

Stiffness
Tensile Tests are used to
determine the variety of
material strengths and
characteristics
Materials original
dimensions are recorded
and then mounted on a
Tensile Testing Machine
stress by calculation

## Material Strength &

Stiffness
The results are
then plotted as a
stress strain
diagram (opposite)
As seen ductile
materials deform
much more than
brittle ones

Ductile
Material

Brittle
Material

## Material Strength &

Stiffness
pl Proportional limit The
point when the curve first
starts to deviate from
proportionality limit (100%
removed) Hookes law
holds
Stress = Youngs Modulus (E)
X Strain
Youngs Modulus (E),
measure of strength of
material ( slope of stressstain graph)

Ductile
Material

pl

Brittle
Material

## Material Strength &

Stiffness
el Elastic limit
Beyond it plastic
deformation would
begin
Though
proportionality no
longer exists in stress
strain curve, but still
100% recovery would
be achieved

Ductile
Material

el

Brittle
Material

## Material Strength &

Stiffness
y Yield Point Strain
increases Rapidly without
much increase in stress
Since not very
pronounced, so yield
Strength Sy is calculated
by offset method i.e.
slope of line ay.
Point a is predefined
usually 0.2% of original
gauge length l0.

Ductile
Material

Brittle
Material

## Material Strength &

Stiffness
ut ultimate
strength Maximum
point on stress
strain curve
Beyond this point
the material exhibits
a downward trend
(due to necking)
before fracturing

Ductile
Material

ut

Brittle
Material

## Material Strength &

Stiffness
f fracture point
At this point the
material breaks

Ductile
Material

Brittle
Material

## Engineering Stresses and True

Stresses
Values quoted in the diagram
before corresponded to
engineering stresses as they
considered the original gauge
area of the specimen
True stresses are generally
more than engineering
stresses due to necking
Cross sectional Area must be
measured simultaneously
during testing

Ductile Material
True Stress
Strain Diagram

## Compression & Torsional

Tests
Compression tests are similar to tensile
tests, though a bit difficult due to problems
in distributing the stresses evenly
Torsional Tests are conducted by twisted
solid cylindrical bars and noting torque and
twist angles.
Similar notations as tensile tests are used
in torsion and compression tests
Compression and Tensile strengths are
generally same for materials

Equilibrium
Condition for the equillibrium include
Sum of all forces =0 F = 0
Sum of all moments =0 , M=0

## Two kinds of equilibrium

Static Equilibrium
Dynamic Equilibrium

## Most of the designed parts are

designed for equilibrium state

## Free Body Diagrams

A complex analysis could be simplified
by taking each element, isolating it
and analyzing it.
Treating all members in this manner
regarding the total system.
This approach helps in establishing a
logical way to approach a complex
problem

Draw Free Body
diagrams for the
system shown in
opposite

## Shear Force & Bending

Moments
Analytical Tools with structural
analysis to help perform structural
design by determining shear forces
and bending moments at a given
point.
Helps determine the type, size,
material for a given set of loads for a
member for it to function without
failure

## Shear Force & Bending

Moments
Shear forces &
bending moments
are both positive and
negative.
Shear force tend to
rotate an element
CW +ive
BM compressing
upper part but
elongating lower

## Shear Force & Bending

Moments
In order to determine the Shear
Forces & Bending Moments
Calculate the Reaction Forces
Break the member in segments
(logically)
Determine the Shear Forces & BM of
each segment

Moments
Determine the
BM and SF at
at x = (L/2)_
x = (L/2)+

Moments
Calculate the
Reaction Forces
by applying
equilibrium
conditions

## Shear Force & Bending

Moments
Solve at x = (L/2)_

## Shear Force & Bending

Moments
Solve at x = (L/2)+

Mohrs Circle
Representation to help determine the
principle and Max Shear stresses
through their graphical
representation

## Construction of Mohrs Circle has

Mohrs Circle
Plot Mohrs Circle with x = 80 MPa
and xy = 50 MPa cw

Mohrs Circle
Plot Mohrs Circle with x = 80 MPa
and xy = 50 MPa cw

Stress Concentration
Ir-regular geometries (hole,
bolt, weld) are known as
stress concentrators.
Stress concentrators are
areas which magnify the
stresses in the part

## Stress Concentration Factor

Concentrators cause high
stresses in structure
A ratio (stress concentration
factor) of the max. stress to
the nominal stress is hence
of interest for the designer

## Stress Concentration Factor

Factors affecting the stress
concentration factor include the
size of the irregularity depth
(a), width (b) and radius of
curvature ()
Hence for a sharp crack the stress
concentrators may get to infinity