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HIGH ENERGY RATE

FORMING

PROBLEM-1(Explosive
Forming)

SOLUTION

(a) Standoff Distance-This is the distance between


workpiece and explosive

Given Diameter, D=1.2 m


so Stand off Distance=0.51.2=0.6m

(b) Hydrostatic pressure


Hydrostatic head, H=2S (where S is the standoff distance)
H=20.6=1.2m
Hydrostatic Pressure, P=gH
=10009.811.2
=11760 N/m2

(c) Solid Angle


The expression for solid
angle is

=tan-1(
=45

= (1-cos45)=0.14644180=26.36

(d) Central height of the formed part


Given data:
Efficiency,=0.4
Yield Strength of mild strength,y=350 Mpa

PROBLEM-2(Explosive
Forming)
Q. Calculate the efficiency of a explosive
forming process under water.
Assume 3 kg for the weight of moving water
front(w) and an impact velocity(v) of 200
m/sec. Specific energy content of explosive
is 3103 KJ/kg. Mass of average charge 0.1
kg

Solution:Given Data:
Weight of the moving water front,(w)=3 kg
Impact Velocity,(v)=200 m/sec
Specific energy content of explosive,=3103 KJ/kg
Mass of an average charge =0.1 kg

Actual Energy Generated by the Explosion, Ec=es


m

PROBLEM-3(Explosive
Forming)
Q. A charge of TNT weighing 10 N is used in
an unconfined explosive forming operation.
Plot the peak pressure over the work surface
with stand off distance.
Ans.
With water as the transmitting medium, the
peak pressure p obtained is given by
p=CWn/3D-n N/mm2

Where

W=weight of the explosive in newton


D=the distance of the work piece from the
explosive(stand off distance)
The typical value of n is around 1.15
C for TNT=4320
The distance between the explosive charge and
the free surface of water(unconfined forming)
should be at least twice the stand off distance.
p=4320
=10442.802

Peak Pressure vs Stand off Distance


160000

Peak pressure

140000
120000
100000
80000
60000
40000
20000
0
0

Stand Off Distance

PROBLEM-4(Explosive
Forming)
Q.
Calculate
the
quantity
of
the
explosiverequired for forming of an ultra-thin
wall steel decorating spherehaving diameter
2000mm and thickness 3mm.The material is
Q235 steel sheet.
Take
KN,the coefficient related to shell structure
and material property=4.51910-6

SolutionThe quantity of the explosive can be written as


below
Q=

whereDis the sphere diameter in (mm);


the thickness of the sheet in (mm);
KNthe coefficient related to shell structure and material
property
the energy transferring efficiency of pressed
medium,=0.55 when using water
ethe specific energy of the explosive, wheree=1.0 for TNT
Qis the weight of the explosive in gram


Q=

=
gm (ans)

PROBLEM-5(Explosive
Forming)
Q. Calculate the deformation energy of the
shellof metallic decorating sphere having 10
number of multiple sections during explosive
forming where strain energy of each tapered
section is 300 KJ and the strain energy of top
and bottom end sheet is 250KJ.

solution

Based
on Mises yield criterion, the total stain

energyUTof the metal shell includes strain


energyUCof each tapered section and the strain
energyUdof the top and bottom end sheet under
proportional loading condition


Solution-

3500KJ

ELECTROMAGNETIC FORMING

The static pressure(p) that acts in a tube, with an outside


diameter Do and a thickness t, to reach a hoop stress equal to
yield strength i.e. to reach a plastic deformation can be
obtained from the relation

=
Due to the inertia effect when deformation takes place at high
strain rates, a multiplying factor N of 2-10 is used to calculate
the magnetic pressure pm required to deform the tube. Therefore,
Pm=2tN /Do

PROBLEM-6
(Electromagnetic Forming)
Q. A brass tube(=300MPa) of 150mm outer
diameter and 2.5mm thickness is to be
formed using EMF. Calculate the magnetic
pressure required to deform it, using a
multiplying factor of 8 for high strain rates.

SOLUTION
Given data:
Yield strength of brass, =300MPa,
Outer diameter Do=150mm,
Thickness of tube t=2.5mm,
Multiplying factor, N=8


So,

Magnetic pressure
Pm=
=
=80 MPa

Practically, EMF process is capable of applying up to 340


MPa in compression when using standard forming coils.

PROBLEM-7
(Electrohydraulic Forming)
Q. The charging voltage of an EHF machine is
16kV and the bank of capacitors is 120 F.
Calculate the machine capacity, given that
process efficiency is 20%.

SOLUTION
Given data:
Charge voltage(vc)=16kv,
Capacitance(cap.)=120F
a)Energy stored in charged capacitor(or machine
capacity)
E=0.5 cap.(Vc )2
=0.512010-6 (16103)2
=15360 J
=15.36 KJ

PROBLEM-8(Explosive
Forming)
Q. Calculate the peak pressure in water for
0.1 kg of TMT at a stand of 0.5m & comment
if this pressure is sufficiently high for forming
sheet metal.
a
3

W
Solution:
p k

Where,
p = peek pressure in Mpa
K = A constant dependent on the explosive
= 39 106 for TNT

W = weight of the explosive in kg


R = stand off distance of the explosive from
the work piece in meter.
a = 1.5(usual)
Therefore,

p 39 10
6

0.1

0.5

= 34.88 MPa

1.5

PROBLEM-9
Q.A Thin-walled spherical shell is under internal
pressure, p. The shell is 0.5m in diameter and 2.5
mm thick. It is made of a perfectly plastic
material with a yield stress of 140 Mpa. Calculate
the pressure required to cause yielding of the
shell according to both yield criteria.
Solution
given,
shell diameter=0.5m
shell thickness=2.5mm
yield stress =140 Mpa

For a shell under internal pressure, the


membrane
Stresses are given by
3
p

2tY
(2)(2.54 10 )(140)

2.8MPa
r
0.254

Where r=254mm and t=2.54mm.


The stresses
3
in the thickness direction,
,is negligible
because of the high r/t ration of the shell.
Thus, according in the maximum shear
stress criterion,

max min Y
or

1 0 Y

And

2 0 Y

Hence 1 2 140MPa
The pressure required is then
2tY (2)(2.54 10 3 )(140)
p

2.8MPa
r
0.254

According to the direction-energy criterion

( 1 2 ) ( 2 3 ) ( 3 1 ) 2Y
2

Or

0 22 12 2Y 2

1 2 Y

Hence
Therefore, the answer is the same, or
p=2.8MPa