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TYPE OF FORCES IN SUBTANCES

SUBSTANCE
ELEMENT
ATOM

COMPOUND
MOLECULE

MOLECULE

ION
-

+
O

Nuclei attraction
between proton in
the nucleus to the
electrons in the
shells

Weak Van der


Waals forces
between
molecules

Strong covalent bond


between atom in the
molecule

Na

Cl

Strong electrostatic
forces in between
positive and negative
ions

Types of
forces

Types of
substance

Description

Weak forces
Van der Waa Covalent
compound between
ls
molecules.

Electrostatic

Ionic
compound

Application

Become stronger
when the size of
the molecules
increases

Explain the low melting and


boiling points of covalent
compound.
Explain the change of state
of matter in Group 17 and
the change in the melting
and boiling points of Group
17 and Group 18
Explain the change in the
physical properties for the
members of homologus
series

Strong forces
between ions.

Explain high melting point


of ionic compound
2

Types of
forces

Types of
substance

Nuclei
attraction
(force of
attraction
between
nucleus and
valence
electron/s)

In the atom
/ molecule
of an
element

Description
Across Period
As the proton
number increases,
the positive charge in
the nucleus
increases.
The force of
attraction between
nucleus and
electrons in the
shells becomes
stronger
The atomic size
becomes smaller
It is easier for the
atom to gain electron,
the atom become
more electronegative

Group 1
Going down the
group:
Proton number
increases
Number of shells
that are occupied by
electron increases:
Atomic size
increases
The strength of
nuclei attraction
between nucleus
and valence
electron/s decreases
Easier for the atom
to release electron
(more
electropositive)

Group 17
Going down the
group
Proton number
increases
Number of shells
that are occupied by
electron increases:
Atomic size
increases
The strength of
nuclei attraction
between nucleus and
valence electron/s
decreases
Tendency to
receive electron
decreases(less
electronegative)

Nuclei Attraction In an Atom

Na
Nuclei attraction
between proton in the
nucleus to the
electrons in the shells

Element in Period 3
ELEMENT

Na

Mg

Al

Si

Cl

Ar

PROTON
NUMBER

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

ELECTRON
ARRANGEMENT

2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3 2.8.4 2.8.5 2.8.6 2.8.7 2.8.8

Change In Atomic Size Across Period Three

Na

11p
(11+)
2.8.1

Mg

12p
(12+)
2.8.2

Al

13p
(13+)
2.8.3

Si

14p
(14+)
2.8.4

15p
(15+)
2.8.5

16p
(16+)
2.8.6

Cl

17p
(17+)
2.8.7

The atomic size decreases across Period 3


All atoms of element across period have 3 shells occupy with electrons
The positive charge in the nucleus increases
The nuclei attraction to the electrons in the shells increases
6

Change in reactivity down the Group


All atoms of element in Group 1 have ..1
valence
electrons achieve a stable octet electron arrangement
by releasing . electron to form charge ion, X

Li

The atomic size going down the group


because of increase in number of ..
The valence electron in the outermost shell ..

Na

away from the nucleus.


The nuclei attraction to the valence electron gets ,
the valence electron is loosely held and it is for
the electron to be released.
The reactivity of element Group 1 increases down the group

Change in reactivity down the Group


17

All atoms of element in Group 17 have .. valence

electrons achieve a stable octet electron arrangement


by accepting . electron to form charge ion.

The atomic size going down the group


because of increase in number of ..
The valence electron in the outermost shell ..

Cl

away from the nucleus. The nuclei attraction to the electrons


in the shells gets ,
The strength of a halogen atom to attract electron ..
from flourine to iodine

Br

Na

Mg

Al

Si

Cl

COMPARING ATOMIC SIZE / ELECTRONEGATIVITY ACROSS PERIOD

Compare number of shells in each atom

Compare number of proton in the nucleus


Li

Na

Compare the strength of nuclei attraction to the


electrons in the shells
COMPARING CHANGE IN REACTIVITY DOWN GROUP 1/ 17

Cl

Compare number of shells in each atom


K

Compare the strength of nuclei attraction to


the valence electron (Group 1)// to attract
electron to the outermost shells (Group 17)
Compare tendency of the atom to release/
receive electron

Br

Comparing Atomic Size /


Electronegativity Across Period
Write electron arrangement /Compare
number of shells
Compare number of protons in the
nucleus
Compare the strength of nuclei attraction
between protons in the nucleus to the
electrons in the shells

Comparing Change In Reactivity


Down Group 1/ Group 17
Compare number of shells
Compare the strength of nuclei attraction
between proton in the nucleus to the
electrons in the shells
Compare tendency to receive /
release electrons

Compare atomic size


Compare tendency to receive electrons

10

1. The diagram below shows the electron arrangement of atom X and atom Y from
Group 1 in the Periodic Table of Elements.

Compare the reactivity of atom X and atom Y.


Explain your answer by referring to attractive forces between the nucleus and the valence
electrons.

[6 marks]

11

Electron
arrangemen
t in atom X
and Y
Atom X

Atom Y

Compare
number of
shells
Compare
atomic size
Compare
the strength
of nuclei
attraction
Compare
tendency to
release
electron
Compare
reactivity

12

P1 & P2 Atom Y is more reactive than atom X.


P 3 & P4 The atomic size Y / the size of atom Y is greater than atom X. //The valence
electron of atom Y is further away from the nucleus compare to atom X.
P5 & P6 The attraction forces between nucleus and valence electron of atom Y is weaker
than atom X.
//it is easier for atom Y to donate / release / lose the valence electron compare to
atom X.
Or
P1 Atom Y is more reactive.
P2 The valence electron of atom Y is further away from the nucleus
// Atom Y has bigger atomic size.
P3 The attraction forces between nucleus and valence electron of atom Y is weak.
P4 Atom X is less reactive.
P5 The valence electron of atom X is closer to the nucleus //Atom XY has smaller atomic
size.
P6 The attraction forces between nucleus and valence electron of atom X is strong.

13

2. The table below shows the proton number of a few elements.


Element
Proton Number

(a)

11

14

W
18
Write the
of atom W
X electron arrangement19

(b) Give a reason why W is not reactive

[ 1 mark]
[ 1 mark]

(c) Elements S and T are located in the same period


(i) State the element with a bigger atomic size.
[ 1 mark]
(ii) Explain your answer in (c)(i)

14
[ 3 marks]

Element

Proton number

11

14

Electron
arrangement in
atom S and T

2.8.1

2.8.4

Compare number
number of shells
Compare number
of proton in the
nucleus
Compare the
strength of nuclei
attraction
Compare atomic
size

15

(d)(i) What can be observed when X reacts with oxygen?


[ 1 mark]
(ii)Write a chemical equation to represent the reaction that takes place in d)(i).
[ 1 mark]

(e) S reacts in the same way as X with water.


(i) Which is more reactive towards water ?
[ 1 mark]
(ii) Explain why.

[ 2 marks]
16

Element

Proton number

11

19

Electron
arrangement in
atom S and T

2.8.1

2.8.8.1

Compare number
number of shells
Compare the
strength of
nuclei attraction
Compare
tendency to
release electrons
Compare
reactivity
17

VAN DER WAALS FORCES BETWEEN MOLECULES

18

Van Der Waals Force Between


Molecules
Strongest Van der Waals forces between
molecule
Strong Van der Waals
forces between molecule

Cl

Cl
Br

Br

Weak Van der Waals


forces between molecule

Cl
Gas

Cl

Br

Liquid

Br

Solid

19

ELECTROSTATIC FORCES BETWEEN IONS

20

Electrostatic Forces Between Positive And Negative Ions

M+

M+

M+

M+

M+

M+

M+

M+

M+

M+

M+

M+

M+

M+

M+

M+

M+

M+

M+

M+

Strong electrostatic forces between positive and negative ions


21

Cl

Cl

CHLORINE MOLECULE, Cl2

Cl

CHLORINE ATOM

Cl

CHLORIDE ION, Cl

22

3. Diagram shows the chemical symbols which represent elements X, Y and Z.


23
11

16
8

12

(b)Atoms of X and Y can react to form a compound.


(i)Name the type of bond in the compound formed between atoms X and Y
[1 mark]
(ii)Draw the electron arrangement for the compound formed.

+
X

2Y

[2 marks]

+
X

23

(c) Atoms of Y and Z can also react to form a compound. Draw the electron
arrangement for the compound formed.
[ 2 marks]

(d)Compare one physical property of compound formed (b) and (c). Explain your
answer.
[4 marks]

24

Electron
arrangement
in the
compound

Compound A

Compound B

+
X

2Y

+
X

Compare type
of particles
Compare the
type and
strength of
forces
between
particles
Compare
amount of heat
needed to
overcome the
forces
Compare
melting and
boiling points

25

Electron
arrangement
in the
compound

Compound A

Compound B
2-

+
X

+
X

Compare type
of particles
Compare
electrical
conductivity

Explanation

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