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WAR ABOVE THE CLOUDS: SIACHEN GLACIER

WAR ABOVE THE CLOUDS:

SIACHEN GLACIER

PRESENTORS

MAHA BUTT IZZAT TARIQ KHAN MADIHA KHALID

PRESENTORS  MAHA BUTT  IZZAT TARIQ KHAN  MADIHA KHALID

AGENDA:

INTRODUCTION HISTORY OF THE CONFLICT STRATEGIC SIGNIFICANCE PRESENT SITUATION SOLUTION CONCLUSION

AGENDA:  INTRODUCTION  HISTORY OF THE CONFLICT  STRATEGIC SIGNIFICANCE  PRESENT SITUATION  SOLUTION

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION  Siachen: place of wild roses.  Located in eastern Karakoram range in Himalaya mountains.

Siachen: place of wild roses.

Located in eastern Karakoram range in Himalaya mountains.

coordinates: 35.421226°N 77.109540°E Northeast to point NJ9842

Length: 76km

Area: 700 km2

Largest in karakoram range

 Length: 76km  Area: 700 km2  Largest in karakoram range  2nd –longest in

2nd –longest in world’s non-polar areas

Lies between Saltoro ridge and Karakorum range.

 Lies between Saltoro ridge and Karakorum range.  Main passes on this ridge (N 

Main passes on this ridge (N S)

Sia La

Bilafond La Gyong La

Average winter snowfall: 1000cm

 Average winter snowfall: 1000cm  Temperature: can dip to −50 °C (−58 °F)  Home

Temperature: can dip to −50 °C (−58 °F)

Home to rare species:

snow leopard brown bear ibex

CONFLICT

CONFLICT  Simla agreement 1972  Both countries claim sovereignty over barren hights

Simla agreement 1972

Both countries claim sovereignty over barren hights

ZONE OF CONFLICT

ZONE OF CONFLICT  The battle zone comprised an inverted triangle resting on NJ 9842 with

The battle zone comprised an inverted triangle resting on NJ 9842 with Indira Col and the Karakoram pass as the other two extremities

HISTORY OF CONFLICT

HISTORY OF CONFLICT  1949  Cease-Fire Line Agreement (CFL) signed by both countries  1957-1976

1949 Cease-Fire Line Agreement (CFL) signed by both countries

1957-1976 international expeditions

sought Pakistani authorization to visit Siachen's nearby mountain peaks

1967 Siachen Glacier clearly inside Pakistan

Indian gov protested against cartography

 Indian gov protested against cartography  Prior to 1984 neither India nor Pakistan had any

Prior to 1984 neither India nor Pakistan had any permanent presence in the area

OPERATION MEGHDOOT

OPERATION MEGHDOOT  Code-name for the Indian Armed Forces operation to capture the Siachen Glacier 

Code-name for the Indian Armed Forces operation to capture the Siachen Glacier

precipitated the Siachen Conflict

Launched on 13 April 1984

Indian interpretation was that Pakistan territory extended only to about the Saltoro Ridge. Pakistan interpretation was that their territory continued northeast from Point NJ9842 to the Karakoram Pass. Both nations claimed the barren heights.

 Indian interpretation was that Pakistan territory extended only to about the Saltoro Ridge.  Pakistan

PAKISTAN MAJOR ASSAULTS

1987:

PAKISTAN MAJOR ASSAULTS headed by Brig Gen Pervaiz Mussharaf  managed to capture a few high

headed by Brig Gen Pervaiz Mussharaf

managed to capture a few high points before being pushed back

1989:

Unsuccessful

Ground positions remained same

1989:  Unsuccessful  Ground positions remained same

WHICH REGION SIACHEN BELONGS

WHICH REGION SIACHEN BELONGS  All the international climbing and mountaineering expedition teams to climb K2

All the international climbing and mountaineering expedition teams to climb K2 and other mountains,including Siachen always got their NoCs from the Pakistani governments.

Siachen has been shown as part of Pakistan in many of international world atlases like UN Defense Mapping Agency (DMA), Historical Atlas of South Asia by Chicago University, Britannica Atlas, National Geographic Society of World Atlas and Times World Atlas.

STRATEGIC SIGNIFICANCE OF SIACHEN GLACIER

STRATEGIC SIGNIFICANCE OF SIACHEN GLACIER

The Siachen glacier is considered to be the largest single source of fresh water as it is the source of the Nubra River that eventually feeds the mighty Indus.

 The Siachen glacier is considered to be the largest single source of fresh water as

The Karakoram highway between China and Pakistan is very close to Siachen which enhances its strategic value.

Current northern areas of Pakistan and K-2.

INDIA’S CLAIM:

 INDIA’S CLAIM:  India’s stance is that the LoC runs from point NJ 9842 along

India’s stance is that the LoC runs from point NJ 9842 along the watersheds formed by the Saltoro ridge that puts the entire Siachen glacier within Indian territory.

PAKISTAN’S CLAIM:

Pakistan claims that the line joins point NJ 9842 with the Karakoram pass that lies towards the northeast, putting Siachen within its territory.

PRESENT SITUATION OF THE CONFLICT

PRESENT SITUATION OF THE CONFLICT

The Indian Army controls a few of the top- most heights, holding on to the tactical advantage of high ground, while the Pakistani forces are controlling Baltoro and other glaciers and valleys in immediate West to Saltoro ridgeline.

 The Indian Army controls a few of the top- most heights, holding on to the

Presently India holds entire 75 KM of Siachen glacier and commands two of the three passes including the highest motorable pass – Khardungla Pass

Pakistan controls Gyong La pass that overlooks the Shyok and Nubra river Valley and India`s access to Leh district.

 Pakistan controls Gyong La pass that overlooks the Shyok and Nubra river Valley and India`s

Logistically, Pakistan Army holds the advantage since its road-head is only 20 KM away from the farthest post while Siachen is a logistical nightmare for the Indian troops who are stationed about 80 km away from the road-head and their supplies have to be maintained entirely by air.

SOLUTIONS

STEPS TOWARDS RESOLVING THE ISSUE

SOLUTIONS STEPS TOWARDS RESOLVING THE ISSUE
SOLUTIONS STEPS TOWARDS RESOLVING THE ISSUE

INDIA’S POSITION ON RESOLVING THE ISSUE

1. India wants Pakistan to 'verifies the map' and remained insistent on accepting ' Actual Ground Position Line' (AGPL) that began from NJ 9842 and ended in the current Indian possessions on Soltaro Range.

 INDIA’S POSITION ON RESOLVING THE ISSUE 1. India wants Pakistan to 'verifies the map' and

2. The Indian position is that both nations should jointly demarcate the current troop positions in the region.

PAKISTAN’S POSITION ON RESOLVING THE ISSUE

PAKISTAN’S POSITION ON RESOLVING THE ISSUE 1. Pakistan maintained its earlier proposal to demilitarise the region.

1. Pakistan maintained its earlier proposal to demilitarise the region.

2. .

Pakistan agrees that the issue should be

resolved with talks but is strongly against a

demarcation of troop positions.

STEPS TOWARDS RESOLVING THE ISSUE

STEPS TOWARDS RESOLVING THE ISSUE  A year after India took over the glacier in 1984,

A year after India took over the glacier in 1984, talks started. After 13 rounds, both sides are now in agreement that the Siachen glacier should be demilitarized as it is very tough to maintain army over there.

Efforts to de-militarize the Glacier in 1989 and in 1992 were set-aside after long rounds of Indo-Pak negotiation. Politicians were– Rajiv Gandhi and Benazir Bhutto

SUGGESTIONS

SUGGESTIONS  A number of suggestions have been made on how the problem can be resolved,

A number of suggestions have been made on how the problem can be resolved, including

1. Declaring the area a peace park,our last hope. 2. Joint patrolling of the region 3. International peacekeeping force being deployed in the region.

CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION

Sending men and material in such an area is a very expensive affair.

 Sending men and material in such an area is a very expensive affair.  On

On an average India spends about Rs. 4 crore per day for maintaining troops in this hostile area. Pakistan also spends about Rs. 1 crore for the same purpose.

Even in normal circumstances, Indian troops suffer one casualty every second day while Pakistani troops suffer one casualty every fourth day.

Besides there are psychological disorders, frostbite, high altitude pulmonary and cerebral edema and snow blindness.

 Besides there are psychological disorders, frostbite, high altitude pulmonary and cerebral edema and snow blindness.

The tragic incident of 7th April avalanche that hit the HQ of 6NLI battalion of Pakistan Army in Gyari sector of Siachen trapping 139 Pakistani troops and civilians that has traumatized the entire nation.

Meanwhile, up above the clouds, in the icy glacier and peaks, the soldiers continue to suffer and die, if not from bullets then from nature, occasionally looking down in the valley where politicians of South Asia find it hard to give peace a chance.

 Meanwhile, up above the clouds, in the icy glacier and peaks, the soldiers continue to

THANKYOU

THANKYOU