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Motivation across Cultures


Chapter 12

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The Nature of Motivation

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Motivation
Psychological process through which unsatisfied wants
or needs lead to drives that are aimed at goals or
incentives

Universalist Assumption
All people are motivated to pursue goals they value
Specific content of the goals that are pursued will be
influenced by culture
Movement toward market economies may make
motivation more similar in different countries

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Figure 12-1
The Basic Motivation Process

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Unsatisfied
need

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Drive toward goal to


satisfy need

Attainment of goal
(need satisfaction)

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The Nature of Motivation (cont.)


Content theories
Explain work motivation in terms of what
arouses, energizes, or initiates employee
behavior

Process theories
Explain work motivation by how employee
behavior is initiated, redirected, and halted

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13-5

Figure 12-2
Maslows Need Hierarchy
Selfactualization
Esteem
Social
Safety
Physiological

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Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory

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Abraham Maslow - Every person has five basic


needs
Physiological needs - food, clothing, shelter, and
other basic physical needs
Safety needs - desire for security, stability, and the
absence of pain
Social needs - need to interact and affiliate with
others and the need to feel wanted by others
Esteem needs - needs for power and status
Self-actualization needs - desire to reach ones full
potential by becoming everything one is capable of
becoming
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Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory (2)

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Lower level needs must be satisfied before


higher level needs become motivators
Once satisfied, a need is no longer a motivator

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Maslow's Theory &


International Managers

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Each country or geographic region appears to


have its own need-satisfaction profile
Managers in U.S., U.K., Nordic Europe and
Latin America report that autonomy and selfactualization are the most important and least
satisfied needs.
Some East Asian managers report even more
difficulty in satisfying these needs

Study was conducted by Haire and others.


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Adapting Maslow's Theory to Asia


Nevis suggested that the hierarchy of needs is
western-oriented and focuses on the individual.
Asian societies focus on group concerns.
Nevis suggested changing hierarchy for China:
Belonging (social)
Physiological
Safety
Self-actualization (in the service of society)

There is no esteem need in Nevis' hierarchy.

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Maslow's Theory and Job Categories


Hofstede noted that the Haire study was limited to
managers
Every culture has different sub-cultures
Looked at job categories as sub-cultures
Analyzed motivation by job categories
Divided Maslow's hierarchy into 3 categories
Low: physiological and safety needs
Middle: social needs
High: esteem and actualization needs

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Highest-ranked Needs by Job Category


Unskilled workers: low-level needs
Technicians: mix of needs from different
categories at least one high-order need
and one low-level need
Clerical workers: middle (social) needs
Managers: high and mid-level needs
Professionals: high-order needs

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Two-Factor Theory of Motivation


Theory that holds there are two sets of factors that
influence job satisfaction
Motivators (correspond to Maslow's high-level needs)
Job content factors which include achievement, recognition,
responsibility, advancement, and the work itself
Produce satisfaction but not dissatisfaction

Hygiene factors (correspond to Maslow's low level and


middle level needs)
Job context variables that include salary, interpersonal
relations, technical supervision, working conditions, and
company policies and administration
Produce dissatisfaction but not satisfaction
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Figure 12-3
Views of Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction

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Traditional View
Satisfaction

Dissatisfaction

Two-Factor Theory
Absent
(dissatisfaction)

Absent
(no satisfaction)
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(hygiene factors)

(motivators)

Present
(no dissatisfaction)

Present
(satisfaction)

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Two-Factor Theory of Motivation (2)

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Cross-Cultural Job-Satisfaction Studies


Results indicate that Herzberg-type motivators
tend to be more important sources of job
satisfaction than are hygiene factors
Job content factors are more important than job
context factors in motivating all levels of
employees

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Achievement Motivation Theory


Theory holds that individuals can have a need to
get ahead, to attain success and to reach objectives
People who have strong a achievement need:
Want personal responsibility for solving
problems
Tend to be moderate risk takers
Want concrete feedback about their
performance
Often do not get along well with other people

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Achievement Motivation Theory (2)

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Achievement motivation is learned and,


therefore, can be developed through
training
Theory has shortcomings
Measurement issues
Does not explain need for achievement in
cultures where individual accomplishment is
not valued

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How to Encourage Achievement Motivation


Train people to
Obtain feedback on performance
Use the feedback to make efforts in areas where
they are likely to succeed
Emulate people who have been successful
achievers
Develop an internal desire for success and
challenges
Daydream in positive terms by picturing
themselves as being successful in the pursuit of
important objectives

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Achievement Motivation Theory (3)

Because the achievement need is learned, it is largely


determined by the prevailing culture
Achievement need is not universal and may change
over time.
Achievement motivation training programs have been
successful in underdeveloped countries
Cultures of Anglo countries and those that reward
entrepreneurial effort support achievement motivation.
Countries have high masculinity and low uncertainty
avoidance support achievement motivation.
In countries with low masculinity, managers should
focus on quality of life as a motivator.
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Process Theories Equity Theory

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Focuses on how motivation is affected by peoples


perception of how fairly they are being treated
When people believe that they are being treated
equitably, it will have a positive effect on their job
satisfaction
If they believe they are not being treated fairly
(especially in relation to others)
They will be dissatisfied, which will have a negative
effect on their job performance.
They will strive to restore equity.

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Process Theories Equity Theory (2)

Focuses on how motivation is affected by peoples


perception of how fairly they are being treated
Research in western work groups supports the theory
Limitations of the theory
Perceptions of equity are not the same everywhere.
In collectivist cultures, people may accept unequal
treatment to preserve group harmony.
Examples: Most countries in the Middle East & Asia
In some cultures, women may accept unequal treatment
(example: lower wages than men)

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Process Theories Goal-Setting Theory

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People perform best when they have challenging


goals and have a role in setting those goals
(participative goal setting).
In the United States and in Israel, participative goal
setting with individuals increases both motivation and
performance

International research on goal setting theories


Employees in Norway and the United Kingdom prefer
to have management work with union officials in
setting work goals
Participative goal setting with individuals may not
work well in collectivist cultures
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Setting Goals

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Goals should be

Challenging but attainable


Important
Specific: The employee should know what is expected
Measurable: The employee and the manager should
agree on how the goal will be measured

The employee should receive timely and frequent


feedback on progress toward the goal

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Process Theories - Expectancy Theory

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Motivation is influenced by a persons belief that


effort will lead to performance, performance will
lead to specific outcomes, and that these outcomes
are valued by the individual
Theory is likely to work best in cultures where
employees believe that they have control over
what happens to them
Expectancy theory has been used successfully in
Japan.

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Motivation Applied - Overview


Job design
Quality of work life
Sociotechnical job design

Job satisfaction

Work centrality
Value of work (reasons for working)
Factors that lead to job satisfaction
Rewards
Incentives

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Quality of Work Life

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Hofstede's cultural dimensions can be used to


explain differences in work life.
Example: Japan
Strong uncertainty avoidance work is highly
structured and risk taking is discouraged
High masculinity people are willing to work hard for
success and money is a powerful motivator.
High collectivism emphasis on group harmony and
use of quality circles (with limited power)
Moderately high power distance top management
makes most decisions
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Sociotechnical Job Design


The objective of these designs is to integrate new
technology into the workplace so that workers
accept and use it to increase overall productivity
New technology often requires people learn new
methods and in some cases work faster
Employee resistance is common

Effective sociotechnical design can overcome


these problems

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Sociotechnical Job Design (2)


Principles of sociotechnical job design
Task variety
Skill variety
Autonomy: employees have discretion and
decision-making authority
Task identity: employees perform an
identifiable unit of work
Timely feedback on job performance

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Sociotechnical Job Design (3)


Multifunctional team with autonomy for
generating successful product innovation is most
widely used teamwork concept in U. S., Japan,
and Europe
General Mills and Volvo have used self-managed
work teams
Substantial investment in training
Managers function as coaches, rather than bosses
some managers resist this change.
Some workers may not want more authority and
responsibility

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Work Centrality

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Work centrality is the importance of work in


a person's life, vs. other activities.
An economic need to work may be the most
important factor in determining work
centrality.

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Rewards and Incentives

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Managers everywhere use rewards to motivate


their personnel
Some rewards are financial in nature such as
salary raises, bonuses, and stock options
Others are non-financial such as feedback and
recognition

In collectivist cultures, group rewards often work


better than individual rewards

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