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Introduction to Electricity

CHAPTER 1 PART 1

OUTLINE
Systme Internationale dUnits SI Unit
(International system of units)
Scientific and Engineering Notation
Atomic Structure
Electron Flow
Measurements Devices

SI Unit
The system of units used in engineering and science is the
Systme Internationale dUnits (International system of
units), usually abbreviated to SI units, and is based on the
metric system.
This was introduced in 1960 and is now adopted by the
majority of countries as the official system of
measurement.

The basic units in the SI system are listed below with their
symbols:

SI Unit
Some Important Electrical Units

SI Unit
Derived SI units use combinations of basic units and there
are many of them. Two examples are:
Velocity metres per second (m/s)
Acceleration metres per second squared (m/s2)

SI units may be made larger or smaller by using prefixes


which denote multiplication or division by a particular
amount.
The six most common multiples, with their meaning, are
listed below:

Scientific and Engineering Notation


Very large and very small numbers are represented with
scientific and engineering notation:

Example-1
47,000,000 = 4.7 x 107 (Scientific
Notation)
= 47 x 106 (Engineering
Notation)
= 47M

Scientific and Engineering Notation


Example-2
0.000 027 = 2.7 x 10-5 (Scientific Notation)
= 27 x 10-6 (Engineering Notation)
= 27

Example-3
0.605 = 6.05 x 10-1 (Scientific Notation)
= 605 x 10-3 (Engineering Notation)
= 605 m

Metric Conversions
When converting from a larger unit to a smaller unit, move the
decimal point to the right.

Example-1

Smaller unit
0.47 MW = 470 kW
Larger
number

Metric Conversions
When converting from a smaller unit to a larger unit, move
the decimal point to the left.

Larger unit

Example-2

10,000 pF = 0.00001 mF
Smaller number

Metric Arithmetic
When adding or subtracting numbers with a metric prefix,
convert them to the same prefix first.

Example-1
10,000 W + 22 kW =>
10,000 W + 22,000 W = 32,000 W
Alternatively,
10 kW + 22 kW = 32 kW

Metric Arithmetic
When adding or subtracting numbers with a metric prefix,
convert them to the same prefix first.

Example-2
200 mA + 1.0 mA =>
200 mA + 1 mA = 201 mA

Metric Arithmetic
When adding or subtracting numbers with a metric prefix,
convert them to the same prefix first.

Example-3
200 A + 1.0 mA =
200 A + 1,000 A = 1,200 A

Alternatively,
0.200 mA + 1.0 mA = 1.2 mA

Selected Key Terms


Engineering notation
A system for representing any number as a one-, two-, or
three-digit number times a power of ten with an exponent that
is a multiple of three.
Metric prefix
A symbol that is used to replace the power of ten in numbers
expressed in scientific or engineering notation.
Scientific notation
A system for representing any number as a number between 1
and 10 times a power of ten.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


Matter
Everything in the world is made of matter. Matter is anything
that has mass (weight) and occupies space.
Matter can be made up of a group or series of different atoms to
form a molecule. These groups of atoms (molecules) are
sometimes called compounds. Some types of matter can be
broken down to a single atom while still maintaining the
properties of the original material. These types of material are
called elements.
Matter has three states: Solid, Liquid, and Vapor.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


Molecule Example

Imagine a lake. Now imagine taking the smallest particle or


piece of water from the lake. You would have a single molecule
of water, H2O, which is made up of two hydrogen atoms and
one oxygen atom.

Not all materials are made up of molecules. Copper, for


example, is made up of a single copper atom. These are called
elements. Each element is a type of matter that has certain
individual characteristics.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


The Atom

One of the basic building blocks in the universe for matter is


the atom. All matter - gas, liquid, or solid - is made up of
molecules or atoms joined together. These atoms are the
smallest particle into which an element or substance can be
divided without losing its property.
A single atom consists of three basic components: a proton, a
neutron, and an electron.
Within the atom there is a Nucleus. The Nucleus contains the
protons and neutrons. Orbiting around the nucleus are the
electrons.
An atom is similar to a miniature solar system. As with the sun
in the center of the universe, the nucleus is in the center of the
atom. Protons and Neutrons are contained inside the nucleus.
Orbiting around the nucleus are the electrons.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


The Atom

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY

The Atom - Atom Construction

An atom is similar to a miniature solar system.

As the sun is in the center of the solar system, so is the nucleus


is in the center of the atom.

Protons and neutrons are contained within the nucleus.

Electrons orbit around the nucleus, which would be similar to


planets orbiting around the sun.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY

The Atom - Nucleus

The Nucleus is located in the center of the atom (shown in red).

The Nucleus contains the protons and neutrons.

Orbiting around the nucleus are the electrons.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY

The Atom Proton & Neutrons

Protons
Protons are located within the nucleus of the atom (shown in blue).
Protons are positively (+) charged.
Neutrons
Neutrons add atomic weight to an atom (shown in green).
Neutrons have no electrical charge.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY

The Atom Electrons

Electrons orbit around the nucleus of the atom (shown in


yellow).
Electrons are negatively (-) charged.
Since electrons are lighter than protons and are outside the
nucleus, they can be easily moved from atom to atom to form a
flow of electrons.
Normally electrons are prevented from being pulled into the
atom by the forward momentum of their rotation.
Electrons are also prevented from flying away because of the
magnetic attraction of the protons inside the nucleus, the same
type of force that keeps the planets orbiting around the sun.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


Electrical Charges

Opposite electrical charges always attract each other.

So these particles with opposite charges will tend to move


toward each other.

Like electrical charges always repel. So particles with like


charges will move away from each other.

Remember: Opposites charges attract, and like charges repel.

Atoms always try to remain electrically balanced.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY

Balanced Atoms

Atoms normally have an equal number of electrons and


protons. Atoms have no electrical charge.

They are neither positive nor negative. They are electrically


neutral or BALANCED.

The negative charge of the electrons will cancel the positive


charge of the protons, thus balancing the charge of the atom.

This cancellation of charges creates a natural attraction or


bonding between the positive proton and the negative electron.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY

ION Particles

When an atom loses or gains an electron, an imbalance occurs.

The atom becomes either a positively or negatively charged


particle called an ION. These unbalanced charged ION particles
are responsible for electron flow (electricity).

IONs will take or release an electron to become balanced again.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY

Electron Orbits

Electrons rotate around the atom at different orbits called


Rings, Orbits, or Shells.

BOUND ELECTRONS orbit the nucleus on the inner rings.


Bound electrons have a strong magnetic attraction to the
nucleus.

FREE ELECTRONS orbit on the outermost ring which is


known as the VALANCE RING.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY

Free Electrons

Only the FREE ELECTRONS in the outermost shell (Valance


Ring) are free to move from atom to atom. This movement is
called ELECTRON FLOW.

These FREE ELECTRONS are loosely held and can easily be


moved to another atom or ion.

Because of their distance from the nucleus, free electrons have


a weak magnetic attraction. Since this attraction is not as strong
to the nucleus as the bound electrons on the inner orbits, the
electrons move easily from atom to atom.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY

Insulators

An INSULATOR is any material that inhibits (stops) the flow


of electrons (electricity).

An insulator is any material with 5 to 8 free electrons in the


outer ring. Because, atoms with 5 to 8 electrons in the outer
ring are held (bound) tightly to the atom, they CANNOT be
easily moved to another atom nor make room for more
electrons.

Insulator material includes glass, rubber, and plastic

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY

Conductors

A CONDUCTOR is any material that easily allows electrons


(electricity) to flow.

A CONDUCTOR has 1 to 3 free electrons in the outer


ring.Because atoms with 1 to 3 electrons in the outer ring are
held (bound) loosely to the atom, they can easily move to
another atom or make room for more electrons.

Conductor material includes copper and gold.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY

Semiconductors

Any material with exactly 4 free flectrons in the outer orbit are
called SEMICONDUCTORS.

A semiconductor is neither a conductor or insulator.

semiconductor
germanium.

These materials are be used in the manufacturer of diodes,


transistors, and integrated circuit chips.

material

includes

carbon,

silicon,

and

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


Current Flow theories
Two Current Flow theories exist. The first is:
Electron Theory
The Electron Theory states that current flows from NEGATIVE
to POSITIVE. Electrons move from atom to atom as they move
through the conductor towards positive.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


Current Flow theories
The second Current Flow theory is:
Conventional Theory
Conventional theory, also known as HOLE THEORY, states
that current flows from POSITIVE to NEGATIVE. Protons or
the lack of electrons (the holes) move towards the negative.
(Current flow direction in Hole Theory is the opposite of that in
Electron Theory.)

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


Voltage

Voltage is the electrical force that moves electrons through a


conductor. Voltage is electrical pressure also known as EMF
(Electro Motive Force) that pushes electrons.

The greater the difference in electrical potential push


(difference between positive and negative), the greater the
voltage force potential.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


Measurement
A VOLTMETER measures the voltage potential across or
parallel to the circuit.

The Voltmeter measures the amount of electrical pressure


difference between two points being measured.

Voltage can exist between two points without electron flow.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


Voltage Units

Voltage is measured in units called VOLTS.

Voltage measurements can use different value prefixes such as


millivolt, volt, Kilovolt, and Megavolt.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


Current (Amperes)

CURRENT is the quantity or flow rate of electrons moving past


a point within one second. Current flow is also known as
amperage, or amps for short.

Higher voltage will produce higher current flow, and lower


voltage will produce lower current flow.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


Measurement

An AMMETER measures the quantity of current flow.


Ammeters are placed in series (inline) to count the electrons
passing through it.

Example: A water meter counts the gallons of water flowing


through it.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


Amperage Units

Current flow is measured in units called Amperes or AMPS.

Amperage measurements can use different value prefixes, such


as microamp, milliamp, and Amp.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


Affects Of Current Flow
Two common effects of current flow are Heat Generation and
Electromagnetism.
HEAT: When current flows, heat will be generated. The higher the
current flow the greater the heat generated. An example would be a
light bulb. If enough current flows across the filament, it will glow
white hot and illuminate to produce light.
ELECTROMAGNETISM: When current flows, a small magnetic
field is created. The higher the current flow, the stronger the magnetic
field. An example: Electromagnetism principles are used in
alternators, ignition systems, and other electronic devices.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


Resistance

Resistance is the force that reduces or stops the flow of


electrons. It opposes voltage.

Higher resistance will decrease the flow of electrons and lower


resistance will allow more electrons to flow.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


Measurement
An OHMMETER measures the resistance of an electrical
circuit or component. No voltage can be applied while the
ohmmeter is connected, or damage to the meter will occur.

Example: Water flows through a garden hose, and someone


steps on the hose. The greater the pressure placed on the hose,
the greater the hose restriction and the less water flows

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


Resistance Units

Resistance is measured in units called OHMS.

Resistance measurements can use different value prefixes, such


as Kilo ohm and Megaohms.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


Resistance Factors
Various factors can affect the resistance. These include:

LENGTH of the conductor. The longer the conductor, the


higher the resistance.
DIAMETER of the conductor. The narrower the conductor, the
higher the resistance.
TEMPERATURE of the material. Depending on the material,
most will increase resistance as temperature increases.
PHYSICAL CONDITION (DAMAGE) to the material. Any
damage will increase resistance.
TYPE of MATERIAL used. Various materials have a wide
range of resistances.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


Types Of Electricity
Two basic types of Electricity classifications:

Static Electricity is electricity that is standing still. Voltage


potential with NO electron flow.

Dynamic Electricity is electricity that is in motion. Voltage


potential WITH electron flow. Two types of Dynamic
electricity exist:

Direct Current (DC) Electron Flow is in only one


direction.
Alternating Current (AC) Electron flow alternates and
flows in both directions (back and forth).

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY

STATIC ELECTRICITY
Voltage potential with NO electron flow.

Example: By rubbing a silk cloth on a glass rod,


you physically remove electrons from the glass rod
and place them on the cloth. The cloth now has a
surplus of electrons (negatively charged), and the
rod now has a deficiency of electrons (positively
charged).

Another example: Rub your shoes on a rug and


then touch a metal table or chair .... Zap!! The

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


Dynamic Electricity
Direct Current (DC)
Electricity with electrons flowing in only one direction is called
Direct Current or DC. DC electrical systems are used in cars.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


Dynamic Electricity
Alternating Current (AC)
Electricity with electrons flowing back and forth, negative positive- negative, is called Alternating Current, or AC.

The electrical appliances in your home use AC power.

BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY


Sources Of Electricity
Electricity can be created by several means: Friction, Heat, Light,
Pressure, Chemical Action, or Magnetic Action.
Only a few of these sources of energy are used in the automobile. The
battery produces electricity through chemical action, and the
alternator produces electricity through magnetic action.

Friction creates static electricity.


Heat can act upon a device called a thermo couple to create
DC.
Light applied to photoelectric materials will produce DC
electricity.
Pressure applied to a piezoelectric material will produce DC
electricity.
Chemical Action of certain chemicals will create electricity.

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