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AC Machines Mainly two types

Induction Similar to a transformer- Stator

windings excited; Rotor winding only has
induced currents-Rugged; less costly
Synchronous Similar to a DC machine;
Magnets located in the rotor; Armature located in
the stator; 3-phase windings; EMF induced in
armature because of the rotation of the rotor

A Simple AC Generator

four-pole alternator

The elementary 3-phase 2-pole round rotor synchronous generator has a stator
equipped with 3 coils displaced 120o from each other; although shown as
concentrated, they actually are distributed. When the rotor is excited with dc and
rotated, the resultant field will also rotate so that sinusoidal voltages are
generated in the 3 stator phases.

Relationship between speed and

induced EMF frequency
If there are 2 poles, positive to negative half cycle
excursion takes place in one revolution.
So, if n is the revolutions per sec, then, frequency of the
induced EMF f=n
If there are p poles, then, within one revolution p/2 cycles
of voltage is induced.
So, frequency f=pn/2 where n is rotational speed in rps.
If the speed increases, then induced emf magnitude and
frequency will increase (similar to transformer equation)

Revolving Magnetic Field

Three phase space distributed winding fed with threephase time distributed current causes a revolving
magnetic field to be set up whose speed is 2f/p rps.

Revolving Magnetic Field

At t=t3

At t=to, t4

At t=t1

At t=t2

AC Motors

AC motors can be divided into two main forms:

synchronous motors
induction motors

High-power versions of either type invariably operate from a

three-phase supply, but single-phase versions of each are also
widely used particularly in a domestic setting

squirrel-cage induction motor

Induction motor
Initially Rotor stationary
So, EMF induced in the rotor windings/conductors.
Already short circuited.
So, Current flows and flux is set up.
Interaction between stator and rotor flux; torque generated.
Torque opposes its own cause; induced flux in the rotor;
So, rotor starts rotating in the same direction as that of stator
magnetic field.

Synchronous Motor
No difference between the stator of induction and
synchronous motors.
Rotor has a permanent magnet or electro magnet;
so, has independent flux.
This magnet is dragged along with the stator
rotating magnetic field.
So, rotates at 2f/p rps OR does not rotate at all.


Topics covered
1. Introduction
2. Circuit solutions using KVL, KCL and network theorems- DC
3. Transients
4. Sinusoidal AC circuits- single-phase and 3-phase, power
and power factor, Resonance
5. Electronics topics
6.Mgnetic circuits
7. Transformers
8.DC Machines
9. AC Machines