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Biological Products/Agents

and Their Impact on Human


Cells, Tissue and Their
Related Diseases
Dr. H. Aziz Djamal
MSc.DTM&H.SpMK(K)

Biological Product Induced


Human Cells and Tissue
Damage :
A.From Inside Human
Body :
1. Complement.
2. Antibody.
3. Cytokines

Complement
Ex. Extremely painActivate the
C3 Complement via alternative
pathwaysC3a and others
anaphylatoxinreceptor on
capillary endothelialvasodilatation,
increase permeabilitymassive
leakage of the plasmashock..
(anaphylactic shock)

Antibody
Ex.Antibody ( mostly IgG) produced
inside human body against self
antigen, due to similarity structure
to the intruder agent (ex.
Streptococcus Beta Haemolyticus
group A)Antibody attach to related
Ag activate complement
InflammationTissue injuryEx.
Rheumatic Heart Disease

Cytokines
Mostly activated by biological
product from outside human
body.
Ex. Proinflammatory citokines
(Interleukin 1 and TNF alpha) in
Avian influezae
infection.Massive destruction
of both side of human lung

B. From Outside Human


Body
Biological Product From:
A.Animal
B.Parasite
C.Bacteria
D.Fungi
E.Virus

Biological Product from


Animal
Ex. Venoms produced by Snake,
Scorpion,Beevery strong venom, activate
Complement C3 via alternate pathway
receptor on capillary endothelial
vasodilatationincrease permeability
massive leakage of serumshock
( anaphylactic shock )

Ex. Cats hair (other products), allergenic


to some people induced IgE
productionat the following contacts.
Cytophylic IgE at Mast bound to
Allergen sending signal to Mast Cell
Degranulated Mast CellVasoactive
amine release ( Histamine etc ).Target
organ.Vasodilatation on capillary and
constriction on
bronchus.Hypersensitivity type 1.

Biological Products of the


Parasites

Ex. Ascaris lumbricoides by products


( Slims) and dead body of adult
wormallergenic induced IgE
production and eosinophilic
hypersensitivity.
Ex. Larvae of Ascaris lumbricoides,
Hook worm ( A.duodenale, N.
americanus ) travel to Lungcaused
lung tissue damage and Pneumonitis

Bacterial Product
Bacterial Product that Penetrate the
host Defence:
Capsule
Component of Cells Wall
Enzymes

Enzymes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Leukocidins.
Hemolysin
Streptolysin
Coagulase.
Bacterial Kinase.
Hyalorunidase.
Collagenase.
Lecithinase.
Siderophore.

Bacterial product Damaging the


cells and tissue
Production of Toxin
Exotoxin
Endotoxin

Three Principle of Exotoxin


1. Citotoxin
a. Shiga toxin.
toxin.
b. Verotoxin.
toxin.
2. Neurotoxin
a. Tetanus toxin.
b. Botulinum toxin
3. Enterotoxin

c. Diphtheriae
d. Erythrogenic

Viral Structural Product


1.
2.
3.
4.

CPE.
Inclusion Body.
Syncitia or Giant Cells.
Interferon.

Fungi Biological Product


Damaged cells and human
tissue
1.Sclerotia.
2.Ergot.
3.Aflatoxin.
4.Mycotoxin

Bacterial capsules
Some bacteria produced strong
capsule consist of polysacharide
polymer : Pneumococcus,
Klebsiella pneumoniae,
Neisseria gonorrhoe ,
Haemophylus influenzae,
Bacillus anthracis etc.
Anti-phagocytic activity.

Cell Wall Component That


Induced Cell and tissue
Damage

Ex. Lipid component ( Polymer of


Mycolic acid ) on Mycobacterium
tuberculosis cell wall posses a strong
anti-phagocitic activity, resist the
intracellular digestion.
Ex. Lipopolysaccharide component of
Salmonella typhi cell wall possesed an
endotoxic activity.

Biological activity of
Bacterial enzyme
Catalyses the hydrolysis of the related
component :
Hyaluronidase produced by
Staphylococcus sp and Streptococcus
sp caused hydrolysis of hyalin
component of human tissue such on
skin and mucose

Leukocidin, Haemolysin,
Streptolysin
Making a protein channel
on Cytoplasmic
membranecause cell
death

Viral component that caused


cellular damaged
CPE : It is due to the burst of the
infected cell over load of viral
component.
Inclusion Body : Unassembly viral
components such as in Rabies
infection- Negri Body.
Syncitial / Giant Cell : Fusion of
cytoplasmic membrane of the infected
host cell by viral unassembly protein.
Interferon : Glycoprotein production

The Action of an A-B Exotoxin

Figure 15.5

Damaging capacity of
exotoxin
Ex. Shiga and Vero toxin.
Attach as ligand on the
receptor the cell activate
thre formation of porin
release the cytoplasm
component death of the
cell

The Action of an A-B Exotoxin

Figure 15.5

Ex. Neurogenic toxin


Tetanus toxin : Block the
release of relaxing signal from
CNS on neurological
synapsespasstic , block the
release of Glycin on the
synapse
Botulinum toxin : Block the
release of Acetyl choline on
the neurological synapse

Action of Tetanus Neurotoxin

Tetanus causes irreversible muscle _________________ (spastic paralysis or lockjaw)

Action of Botulinum Neurotoxin

Botulinum toxin, the most poisonous substance known, causes


irreversible muscle _________________ (flaccid paralysis).

Enterotoxin activity
Ex. Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin
After bacterial colonization- toxin
released-toxin get into the intestinal
mucosalcell activate the adenylate
enzymatic cascade-produced cyclic
-5-AMP- accumulation of cell energyactivate the secretion of water and
electrolyte from the to intestinal
lumen- produced severe secretoric
diarrhea

Action of cholera enterotoxin


(cont.)