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MatE 443 Ferrous Metallurgy

R.E. Napolitano
Materials Science & Engineering
Iowa State University

What is Ferrous Metallurgy?

What is Ferrous Metallurgy?

What is Ferrous Metallurgy?

What is Ferrous Metallurgy?

Historically, ferrous metallurgy is the foundation
for virtually everything we know about the
structure and properties of metals.
Process Metallurgy
Extraction and Refinement

Physical Metallurgy
Thermodynamics and kinetics of microstructural transformations

Mechanical Metallurgy
Deformation behavior and failure mechanisms

Ferrous Metallurgy Course Outline

The Manufacture of Iron and Steel

Physical Metallurgy
of Ferrous Alloys

The Heat Treatment

of Steels and Cast Irons
Properties of Steels
and Cast Irons

I. The Manufacture of Iron and Steel

Iron Ores
Recovery of Iron

Steelmaking Processes
Control of Ingot/CC Structure
Melt Chemistry & Alloying

Thermomechanical Processing
Standard Product Forms
Classification of Steels & Irons

II. Physical Metallurgy of Ferrous Alloys

Phases and Microstructures

Phase diagrams
Stable/metastable phases
Fe, Fe-C, Alloys

Phase Transformations

Nucleation and growth

Austenite decomposition
Martensitic transformation
Interface driven processes

Transformation Kinetics

Kinetics of diffusion
Competitive nucleation kinetics
Growth morphologies
TTT and CC diagrams
JMA/K kinetics

III. The Heat Treatment of Steel and Cast Iron

Basic Heat Treatments

Hardness and Hardenability

Tempering of Steel

Specialized Heat Treatments

Surface Treatments

Heat Treatment Equipment


Composition and size effects

Hardenability curves
Critical diameter
Grossman Number

Carburization and case hardening

Induction hardening
Flame Hardening
Nitriding and carbonitriding

Composition and size effects

Hardenability curves
Critical diameter
Grossman Number


Batch and continuous furnaces

Heat treating environments
Surface treatments

IV. Properties of Steels and Cast Irons

Mechanical Properties

General flow behavior

Strength & toughness
Fracture toughness
Fatigue and wear

Physical Properties

Thermal properties
Electrical properties
Magnetic properties

Chemical Properties

Corrosion resistance
High temperature behavior
Alloying effects

Classes of Specialized Steels

Stainless steels
Tool Steels
HSLA Steels
High Temperature Steels

What should I already be familiar with?

Thermodynamics of Materials
Phase diagrams
Gibbs free energy
Physical chemistry

Kinetics of Phase Transformations

Thermal activation
Diffusive processes
Nucleation and growth

Mechanical Metallurgy

Plastic deformation
Elementary dislocation theory
Strengthening mechanisms

Characterization Methods

Optical Microscopy
Scanning electron microscopy
X-ray diffraction

MatE 212
D.R.Gaskell, Introduction to Metallurgical
Thermodynamics, Chapters 10, 11, and 12.
MatE 315
D.A. Porter and K.E. Easterling, Phase
Transformations in Metals and Alloys,
Chapters 2.1-2.3, 3.4, 5.1-5.4.
MatE 318 and 342
G.E. Dieter, Mechanical Metallurgy,
Chapters 5 and 6.
MatE 214
Richardson, Optical Microscopy for the
Materials Sciences; Goldstein et al.,
SEM and X-Ray Microanalysis;
Cullity, Elements of X-ray Diffraction.

What should I gain from this course?

A general knowledge of the various methods available for the
production of ferrous materials and their associated
characteristics with respect to engineering properties.
Practical capabilities with respect to the identification and
control of microstructures in steels and cast irons.
An understanding of the relationships between microstructure,
chemistry, processing, and properties in ferrous alloys.
A general appreciation for the wide variety of microstructures
and properties available in ferrous alloys.
The ability to assess, select, and specify ferrous alloys and
processing routes for particular design applications.
The ability to apply basic metallurgical principles to engineering
problems related to the design, production, and application of
ferrous alloys.

MatE 443 Course Structure

Homework & Quizzes

Lab Reports
Lab Project
Exam I
Exam II
Exam III
Comprehensive Final Exam


Leslie, The Physical Metallurgy of Steels

Honeycombe & Bhadeshia, Steels,
Text: Krauss, Steels: Processing,
Structure, and
Samuels, Light Microscopy of Carbon Steels
Other Refs: See syllabus