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CONSUMER KNOWLEDGE,

LEARNING, AND UNDERSTANDING

Learning--what is it?

One form of
learning...

Operant conditioning
Classical conditioning
Brand loyalty

Perception

MKTG 371

Characteristics of the senses


Accuracy
Ability to detect change
Attention
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Most useful for


vicarious learning!

Lars Perner, Instructor

CLASSICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL


(OPERANT) CONDITIONING

Consumers (often
unconsciously) link
objects to past
experience
Consequences of
behavior tend to
influence subsequent
behavior

MKTG 371

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

Another Typology
High
Involvement
Learning
Low
Involvement

MKTG 371

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

Classical Conditioning

MKTG 371

Pavlovs dogs
Objects (stimuli)
associated with a
response may bring
about the response
Credit card studies
Stimuli and
responses

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

Classical Conditioning
US

---->

(Unconditioned stimulus)

US + CS

UR
(Unconditioned response)

-----> UR

(Conditioned stimulus)

CS
now

------> CR
(Conditioned response)

(CS alone is
able to

bring
CR)

E.g.:
SUGAR
SUGAR + Cola Taste
MKTG 371

NOTE: UR and CR
-------> insulin release represent the same
behavior, but causes
differ
-------> insulin release

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

Consumer Examples

Advertising:
pairing product with
images of desired
affect
Product: Evoke
image of object
associated with
positive affect (e.g.,
Mustang; Coke Bottle)

MKTG 371

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

Making Classical Conditioning


Work

MKTG 371

Appropriate symbols
(for the population
in question) to elicit
emotion
NOTE: Test stimuli
for desired effect!
Repetition

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

INSTRUMENTAL (OPERANT)
CONDITIONING
REINFORCEMENT

BEHAVIOR

NOT the
same
thing!

MKTG 371

LIKELIHOOD
OF
BEHAVIOR

NEGATIVE
REINFORCEMENT

PUNISHMENT

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

LIKELIHOOD
OF
BEHAVIOR
Lars Perner, Instructor

Reinforcement: An Example
You eat a cake (behavior)
----> good taste (reward)
----> more likely to eat cake
on another occasion

MKTG 371

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

Negative Reinforcement
(not the same as punishment!)
Aversive stimulus exists
Behavior ----> termination of aversive
stimulus
----> repetition of behavior
during aversive stimulus
MKTG 371

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

10

Negative Reinforcement: An
Example
Headache (aversive stimulus)
Aspirin (behavior) ---> Headache
cessation
----> Likely to consume
aspirin during future
headaches

MKTG 371

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

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PUNISHMENT
Behavior ----> Negative
consequences
-----> Behavior less
likely to be repeated
when punishment is
anticipated (mostly)
MKTG 371

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

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Punishment: Examples

MKTG 371

Parking meters
Gas taxes
Restocking fees
Fees for non-ATM
banking transactions
Over-base rate
utility charges

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

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More Punishment Examples

MKTG 371

Voidance of
warranty if product
is serviced by
competitor
Social ostracism for
failure to wear
deodorant

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

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Reinforcement Effectiveness
Temporal proximity--conditioning is
more effective if consequences
immediately follow behavior (delayed
reinforcement is much less effective)
Recognition of relationship between
behavior and consequences
Schedules of reinforcement--variable
ratio is most effective

MKTG 371

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

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Strength of Learning

Importance
Involvement
Product
Messagee.g.,

Mood
Mixed research results

AFLAC Insurance
Energizer Bunny

MKTG 371

More elaboration and


associations during
positive mood if the
association is
pleasurable
Happy people may seek
to avoid thinking to
avoid spoiling the good
mood
Individuals will tend to
be more critical of
claims under bad mood

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

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Extinction

MKTG 371

Behavior which is
not reinforced tends
to become extinct
gradually

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

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Schedules of Reinforcement
Fixed interval
Fixed ratio
Variable ratio
resistant
Variable interval

MKTG 371

<------ Most
to extinction

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

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Shaping
Behavior approximating
desired kind level
e.g., buying new
product on sale
Increased requirements,
when met
e.g., magnitude of sale
gradually decreased

MKTG 371

------> Reward

-------> Reward

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

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Shaping: Possible Examples

MKTG 371

Introduction of fruit flavored


soft drinks in Indonesia prior
to Coca Cola
New products given premium
shelf space in the beginning
Premium given with purchase
of new product
In-store demonstrations of
new products
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Note that marketers


power tends to be
limited

Lars Perner, Instructor

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Instrumental (Operant)
Conditioning In Practice

MKTG 371

Marketers typically do not have the power to


significantly reward or punish people
greatly-- typically have little power to
directly influence peoples experience
Note that many rewards and punishments are
significantly delayed
Better able to influence vicarious learning

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

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Brand Loyalty vs. Habit

MKTG 371

Habit: consumer
picks product
without much
thought; may be
due to convenience
Loyalty: consumer
actively seeks out
product

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

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Loyalty...

MKTG 371

Multibrand loyalty
How strong?

...or lack of it.

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

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Stimulus Generalization

Rub off effect


A slightly different stimulus may not be
discriminated
Both discrimination and generalization are
evolutionarily adaptive
Categorizing of like objects (e.g., lions, alphabet
letters)
Distinction between dangerous and safe entities

MKTG 371

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

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Developing Brand Loyalty:


Tricks and Traps

Product quality --->


satisfaction
Sales promotions
Stealing loyal consumers
away from others--is it
worth it?
Price
value
exclusiveness

MKTG 371

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

25

Memory

Level of conscious intent


Explicit memory

Deliberate attempt to
retrieve information

Implicit memory

Information automatically
recalled
E.g., associations
E.g., routine information
(social security and
phone numbers, web site
addresses)

MKTG 371

Associative Network of
Knowledge
Pieces of experience and
information (nodes) are
tired together
Activating one node will
tend to activate others
which in turn will activate
still more nodes

E.g.,
Thinking of marketing
class may activate name
of a soft drink always
consumed by the
instructor
The soft drink may have
more competing links
and may not activate the
professor

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

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Memory

Short term (compare to RAM --->


volatile)
mnemonic devices (e.g., 1-800-FLOWERS)

STM

Long term (compare to hard disk --->


longer in duration but imperfect--I
remember it well)

REHEARSAL

LTM
DECAY

MKTG 371

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

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Turning STM into LTM

Rehearsalrepetition of information
By consumer (e.g., phone number)
By advertisement

Elaborative activitiesthinking of the object


to strengthen its association with other
nodes and maintenance
Extinction from long term memory
E.g., old phone numbers; how to use an old
computer program; loss language skills

MKTG 371

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

28

Scripts: The Way to Do


Things

Procedure for doing various


things learned over time
E.g., restaurant script:

MKTG 371

make reservation
travel to restaurant
await seating
order drinks
study menu
order
have dessert and/or coffee
pay check and leave tip
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

29

Implications of Scripts

Check car odometer


If more than 3,000 miles,
go to Joes garage or
look in yellow pages for garages

Ask mechanic for oil change


When asked which brand of oil
select Pennzoil or
think about which brand to use

MKTG 371

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

If you were
Joe or
Pennzoil,
which
script would
you prefer?

Lars Perner, Instructor

30

Positioning and Repositioning


Working with existing perceptions
Research to identify perception and
associations of productsPerceptual
Maps
Repositioning

Very difficultmay be more cost effective


to develop a new brand

MKTG 371

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

31

Brand Equity and Leverage


Consumer associations with product are
valuable
Brand leverage (brand extensions,
brand family, umbrella branding)

Use of appropriate associations


May involve brand style rather than
product similarity
Concept testing is important
MKTG 371

LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING

Lars Perner, Instructor

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