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Communications

Computer communications describes a


process in which two or more computers or
devices transfer data, instructions, and
information

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Communications
A sending device that initiates an instruction
to transmit data, instructions or information.
A communication channel or transmission
media on which the data , instructions or
information travel.
A receiving device that accepts the
transmission of data, instruction or
information.

Uses of Computer
Communications

Blogs
Chat rooms
E-mail
Fax
FTP
Instant Messaging
Internet

Newsgroups
RSS
Video Conferencing
VoIP
Web
Web 2.0
Wikis

Discovering Computers 2012:

Uses of Computer
Communications

Chat rooms : Real-time type conversation among two or more


people that takes place on computer connected to network
E-mail : Transmission of messages and file via computer
network
Fax : Transmits and receives documents over telephone lines
Internet : Worldwide collection of networks that links
million of business, government agencies ,educational institutes
and individuals
Wikis : Collaborative websites that allow users to create ,
add , modify or delete website content.
Web :
Web 2.0 :

Difference between :
WEB

WEB 2.0

Uses of Computer
Communications
Wireless Internet access points allow
people to connect wirelessly to the Internet
from home, work, school, and in many public
locations
Two Types:
Hotspots : It is a wireless network that provides Internet
connections to mobile computers and devices
Wi-Fi
Wi-MAX
Bluetooth

Mobile wireless networks

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Figure 9-4

Uses of Computer
Communications
A global positioning system (GPS) is a
navigation system that consists of one or
more earth-based receivers that accept
and analyze signals sent by satellites in order
to determine the GPS receivers
geographic location
Built into are:Available
GPS receivers
Available
many
as a
with new
mobile
handheld
vehicles
devices
device
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Uses of Computer
Communications

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Discovering Computers 2012:

Uses of Computer
Communications
Many programs provide a means to collaborate, or
work online, with other users connected to a server
Collaboration software includes tools that enable users
to share documents via online meetings and
communicate with other connected users
Online meetings : allows users to share documents
with other in real time
Web conferences: when online meetings takes place
on the web
Document management systems : Provides for
storage and management of a companys documents
such as presentations etc.
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Uses of Computer
Communications
Web services enable
programmers to create
applications that
communicate with
other remote
computers over the
Internet or on an
internal business
network
A mashup is a Web
application that
combines services from
two or more sources
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Figure 9-8

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Outlines for NETWORK

Network - definition
Advantages of Network
i. facilitating communication
ii. Sharing hardware
iii. Sharing data and information
iv. sharing software
v. transferring funds
Different types of network
i. LAN
ii. WLAN
iii. MAN
iv. WAN
Network Architecture
i. Client/server
ii. Peer-to-Peer
iii. Internet Peer to Peer

Network topology
i.Star Network
ii.Bus Network
iii.Ring Network
Communication Standard
i. Ethernet
ii.Token Ring
iii.TCP/IP
iv.Wi-Fi
v.Bluetooth
vi.WAP
vii.UWB
viii.IrDA
ix.RFID
x.Wi-MAX
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Networks
A network is a collection of computers and
devices connected together via
communications devices and transmission
media
Advantages of a network include:

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Advantages of a network
Facilitating communications : Using a network people
communicates efficiently and easily via email , instant
messaging , chat rooms, blogs , online social networks etc.
Sharing hardware : In a networked environment, each
computer on the network can have access to hardware on
the network.
Sharing Data & Info : In a networked environment , any
authorized computer user can access data and information
stored on other computers on the network.
Sharing Software : Users connected to a network have
access to software on the network.
Transferring funds :Called Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT)
, it allows users connected to a network to transfer money
from one bank account to another via transmission media.
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Networks
A local area network (LAN) is a network
that connects computers and devices in a
limited geographical area such as a
home , school computer lab or office
building.
A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a LAN that uses
no physical wires. Computers and devices
that access a wireless LAN must have built
in wireless capabilities .
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Figures 9-10 9-11

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Networks
A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a high
speed network that connects local area
networks in a metropolitan area such as a
city or a town and handles bulk of communication
across region.
A wide area network (WAN)
is a network that covers a
large geographical area such as city
or country using a communications channel that
combines many types of media such as
telephone lines and cables.
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Figure 9-12

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Networks- NETWORK
ARCHITECTURES :
The design of computers, devices, and media on a
network is sometimes called the network architecture
and is categorized as :
Client /Server: one or more computers act as a server
and the other computers on the network request
services from the server Clients are other computers
and mobile devices on the network that rely on the
server for its resources.
Peer to Peer : One type of peer to peer network is a
simple network that typically connects less than 10
computers. Each computer , called a Peer, has equal
responsibilities and capabilities, sharing hardware with
other computers on peer to peer.
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Networks
Internet Peer to Peer : also called P2P ,
describes an Internet network on which users
access each others hard disks and exchange
files directly over the Internet

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Figure 9-15

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Networks - Network Topology


A network topology refers to the layout of the
computers and devices in a communications
network
Star Network : On a star network, all computers
and devices on the network connect to a
central device, thus forming a star
Bus Network : it consists of single central cable
to which all computers and other devices connect.
Ring Network : a cable forms a closed loop with
all computers and devices arranged along the ring.
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Networks

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Discovering Computers 2012:

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Network Communications
Standards
IEEE propose, develop and approve network
standards
Network standard define guidelines that specify
the way computers access the medium to which
they are attached, the type of medium used,
speeds used, physical cable and wireless
technology used.

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Network Communications
Standards

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Discovering Computers 2012:

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Network Communications
Standards
Ethernet is a network standard that specifies
no central computer should control when data
can be transmitted
The token ring standard specifies that
computers and devices on the network share
a special signal (token)
TCP/IP is a network standard that defines
how messages are routed from one end of a
network to another
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Network Communications
Standards
Wi-Fi identifies
any network based
on the 802.11
standard that
facilitates wireless
communication

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Figure 9-20

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Network Communications
Standards
Bluetooth defines how two Bluetooth devices
use short-range radio waves to transmit data
UWB (ultra-wideband) specifies how two UWB
devices use short-range radio waves to
communicate at high speeds
IrDA transmits data wirelessly via infrared light
waves
RFID uses radio signals to communicate with a
tag placed in or attached to an object, animal, or
person
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Network Communications
Standards

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Communications Software
Communications software consists of
programs that:
1.Help users to establish a connection to
another computer or network
2.Manage the transmission of data,
instructions, and information
3.Provide an interface for users to
communicate with one another

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Communications Devices
A communications device is any type of
hardware capable of transmitting data,
instructions, and information between a
sending device and a receiving device
1. A Dial-up modem converts signals between
analog and digital
2. Digital modem sends and receives data and
information to and from a digital line
ISDN
DSL
Cable
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Communications Devices
3. A wireless modem uses the cell phone
network to connect to the Internet wirelessly
from a notebook computer, a smart phone, or
other mobile device

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Figure 9-28

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Communications Devices
4. A network card
which is also known as
Network Interface Card
enables a computer or
device to access a
network. Network cards
are available in a variety
of styles. Wireless network
cards often have an
antenna that provides
wireless data transmission

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Communications Devices
5. A wireless access point is a central
communications device that allows computers
and devices to transfer data wirelessly among
themselves or to a wired network

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Figure 9-30

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Communications Devices
6. A router connects
multiple computers
or other routers
together and
transmits data to its
correct destination
on a network
Many are protected
by a hardware
firewall
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Figure 9-31

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Communications Devices
7. A hub or switch connects several devices in
a network together and receives data from
many directions and then forwards it to one or
more directions.

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Home Networks
Home networks provide computers with the
following capabilities:
1. Connect to the Internet at the same time
2. Connect game consoles to the Internet
3. Play multiplayer games
4. Share a single high-speed Internet connection
5. Share peripherals
6. Access files and programs on other computers
7. Subscribe to and use VoIP

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Home Networks
Types of wired home networks:
Ethernet requires that each computer have builtin network capabilities which connects to a central
network hub.
Power line cable uses the same line that brings
electricity into the house; One end in the USB port
and other end in the wall outlet
Phone line cable easy to install and
inexpensive.; one end to an adapter or PC card
and other end plugs in a wall telephone jack.

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Communications Channel
The amount of data that can travel over a
communications channel sometimes is called
the Bandwidth
Latency is the time it takes a signal to travel
from one location to another on a network
Transmission media consists of material
capable of carrying one or more signals.
Broadband media transmit multiple signals
simultaneously.
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Figure 9-34

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Physical and Wireless


Transmission Media

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Figure 9-35

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Physical and Wireless


Transmission Media
Physical Transmission Media
Twisted Pair Cable consists of one or more
twisted pair wires bundled together
Coaxial Cable consists of single copper wire
surrounded by at least three layers :
an insulating material,
a woven metal , and
a plastic outer coating

Fiber Optic Cable consists of thin strands of


glass or plastic that use light to transmit signals.
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Physical Transmission Media

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Wireless Transmission Media


Cellular radio is a form of broadcast radio
that is used widely for mobile communications
Broadcast radio distributes radio signals
through air over long and short distances.
Microwaves are radio waves that provide a
high-speed signal transmission
A communications satellite is a space
station that receives microwave signals from
an earth-based station, amplifies it, and
broadcasts the signal over a wide area
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Figure 9-40

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Wireless Transmission Media

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Figure 9-39

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