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Harness Water Resources
Irrigate Lands
GDP of Nation / Socio Economic Development
Depending on Water availability , Plan Storage /
Diversion Scheme
Identify Ayacut / Command Area (Where ?
What? How Much?)
Plan Canal System
Design Canal Section

Classification of Canals
Based on :1)Source of Supply
2)Financial Output

Crop Water Requirement

To know the Discharge required in the
canal, crop water requirement is essential.
Crop water requirement may be arrived by
adopting:1. Duty Method
Generally - 10,000 acres / 1 TMC for Wet
15,000 acres / 1 TMC for ID (CWC
2. Modified Penman Method

IS 5968 : 1987 Guide for Planning and
Layout of Canal System for Irrigation
IS 7112 : 2002 Criteria for Design of Cross
Section for unlined canals in Alluvial Soils
IS 10430 : 2000 Criteria for Design of
Lined canals and Guidance for selection of
Type of Lining.

Planning of Canal System and

Head Discharge of Canal
Land Use Maps in 1:15,000 Scale showing
culturable command area, important crops ,
cropping pattern / proposed cropping pattern
Canal Alignment Map
Typical Canal System is :- Main canal as Contour
Canal and Branches and Distributaries as
Watershed / Side slope canals.

Cross Drainage Works

A structure carrying the discharge of a natural stream across a canal intercepting

the stream. A cross drainage work is generally a very costly item and should be
avoided as far as possible by diverting one stream into another or changing the
alignment of the canal.
Cross drainage works carrying canal over the drainage
Aqueduct: The HFL of the drain is much below the bottom of the canal trough.
Syphon aqueduct: HFL of the drain is much higher above the canal bed (UT).
Cross drainage work carrying drainage over the canal
Super passage: The FSL of the canal is lower than the trough carrying drainage

Canal syphon: The FSL of the canal is much above the bed level of the drainage

Cross Drainage Works

Cross drainage work admitting the drainage water
into the canal
Level crossing: the drainage and the bed of canal
cross each other practically at same level.
Inlet : when cross drainage flow is small and its water
may be absorbed into the canal without causing rise.
Outlet : To pass out the additional discharge which
has entered the canal.

Economy in Canal

Study Alternative alignments

Avoid Deep cuts / High Embankments
Alignment along FSL Contour
Propose Bed fall nearer to average natural slope of
Partial cutting and partial filling recommended
Alignment in straight lines, avoiding curves
Radii of curves to be 3 to 7 times water surface
Less number of Crossings
Avoid CM / CD in curves

Economy in Canal Alignment

Avoid Canal syphons, Flumed sections, inlets, skew
Spacing of Distributaries depending on configuration of
Reduce Canal section after 10% reduction in canal
discharge, followed by cross regulator
Reduce CM/CD works by Diversions / Combining SLB with
Regulators / Super passages
Provide Bridges at Designated roads. Distance between
two bridges shall not be less than 3 Km
Propose Cross regulator / Drop @ change of section / Bed
fall or at maximum interval of 40 Km to take care of
Breaching of Embankment

Economy in Canal Alignment

Propose Canal Escapes on U/s of Embankment
reaches near river / drain course with 50% canal
discharge to safeguard against overtopping /
breaching during Heavy rainfall / unexpected
Drops are recommended where canal bed slope is
flatter than slope of Ridge.

Design of Canal Section

Trapezoidal Section for main canals, distributaries /
Cup shaped for Minors, field channels
Formulae used: Q = AV (continuity equation)
V = 1/n R1/3 S (Mannings Formula) or
V = 0.55 m D 0.64 (Kennedys Formula)
m = V /Vo (Kennedys Critical Velocity Ratio) 0.9 to 1.1
for unlined channels and greater than 1 for lined

Design of Canal Section

Trapezoidal Section formula

A = (B+SD) D
P = B+ 2 ((1+n2)D)1/2
R = A/P