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Dual Transfer Mode

Training
A closer look at DTM

Eric Kroon

NOKIA

BSS_12_FUD_v2_1.PPT / 13-09-2005 /

Nokia Customer Confidential

Course objectives
This training material should provide the student with following
The basic (theoretical) understanding of DTM
Planning issues that arise with DTM
How to monitor DTM
This training should be self supporting
This training is written from a perspective that the student has
already basic knowledge about planning and optimization issues
of EGPRS as well as the terminology

NOKIA

BSS_12_FUD_v2_1.PPT / 13-09-2005 /

Nokia Customer Confidential

Content
What is DTM
Call procedures
Territory issues
Handovers
Related stuf
Planning issues

NOKIA

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What is DTM
What is DTM
System requirements in BSS
Other system requirements
Connection supervision
Interworking with other features
New MS classes and Timeslot allocation
GPRS Transparent Transport Protocol (GTTP)
Coordination of PS and CS paging
Signaling
Resource management
Accessing DTM

NOKIA

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What is DTM?
Dual Transfer Mode is a subset of Class A mode of
operation, only possible if there is radio resource allocation
co-ordination in the network
In DTM mode the MS is simultaneously in dedicated and
packet transfer mode but the CS and PS timeslots allocated
in each direction are contiguous and within the same
frequency
In DTM mode the CS part consists of a single-slot
connection while PS part may be a multi-slot connection
DTM is an optional feature for the mobile station as well as
for the network
New applications like WAP browsing / emailing with
ongoing CS call, Video sharing and Mobile Net meeting can
be supported
In multislot operation, the GPRS data is sent on a PDCH
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What is DTM

NOKIA

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Nokia Customer Confidential

DTM System Requirements in BSS


DTM is an application software product in BSS12.

It afects only BSC software


It requires a valid license in the BSC

HW requirements in BSS12:

DTM is supported in PCU2s only


UltraSite (CX5.0), MetroSite (CX5.0), and Talk Family (feature
candidate S12) BTSs support DTM, no SW changes are required

Requirements for other Network elements:

DTM capable terminals are required


OSS4.1 SW needed at NetAct
MSC needs to support IMSI delivery to BSC (M11).
GPRS territory is mandatory (DTM resources will be in the PS
territory)

System Configuration:

NOM I required for full paging co-ordination (Gs interface)

S12 needs High Capacity BSC product configurations (TN


796)
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Requirements overview

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Other requirements
Network must have GPRS or EDGE activated and active in the
network where DTM is to be rolled out
Preferable the PS territory should have at least have 2 TS
dedicated (this will minimize extra signaling for territory upgrade
for DTM calls)
Supported bands
GSM 800
GSM 900
GSM 1800
GSM 1900

NOKIA

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Connection supervision
The CS connection is controlled in the BSC and handles:
Speech codec mode selection for DTM-CS
Handover control
The PC connection is controlled by the PCU (PCU2) and handles:
Admission control to PS territory
Channel allocation for both CS as PS DTM connection
PS territory management

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Interworking with other features


Supported in DTM
(E)GPRS
Enhanced Dynamic Allocation (EDA)
Half Rate
AMR
In call modification
Power control
Common BCCH and Multi BCF control
Not supported in DTM
IUO
HSCSD
Queuing and pre-emption
Soft channel capacity
NCCR and NACC

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New DTM classes


For DTM three new MS classes have been defined. These are
Class 5,
Class 9,
Class 11
Class 3

Class 5

Class 7

Class

2+2=3

2+2=4

3+3=4

Rx+Tx=Sum

Class 1

Class 2

Class 6

Class 11

Class 12

1+1=2

2+1=3

3+2=4

4+3=5

4+4=5

Class 4

Class 9

Class 10

3+1=4

3+2=5

4+2=5

Box colors
Purple: non DTM classes
Green: DTM classes

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Class 8
4+1=5

Nokia Customer Confidential

Timeslot allocation
The following figure represents examples of timeslot allocation for different classes

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DTM - GPRS Transparent Transport


Protocol
GPRS mobility management and session management signaling
can be send on main DCCH, i.e. signaling channel when MS is on
dedicated mode (FACCH or SACCH)

New protocol layer: GPRS Transparent Transport Protocol (GTTP)

Short signaling messages


GTTP will be used
GTTP signaling provides fast signaling link for GMM/SM
messages (no TBF needed).
Long signaling messages and user data
The PDCH (i.e. TBF in DTM mode is needed) is used
New message on the radio interface: GPRS INFORMATION

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DTM - GPRS Transparent Transport


Protocol
GTTP is only used when the MS is in DTM dedicated mode
GTTP signaling is only used in the following cases
The DL LLC PDU contains signaling
The size of the DL LLC PDU (in bytes) is less then
18 * MAX_LAPD_LENGTH 8
Representation of the GTTP protocol in the ISO model
GMM/SM

GMM/SM

LLC

LLC

RR/GTTP

BSSGP

BSSGP

LAPDm

LAPDm

LAPD

LAPD

NS

NS

FACCH/SDDCH

FACCH/SDDCH

TRXSIG

TRXSIG

FR

FR

MS

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RR/GTTP

NOKIA

Um

BSS_12_FUD_v2_1.PPT / 13-09-2005 /

BTS

Abis

BSC/PCU

Nokia Customer Confidential

Gb

SGSN

GTTP signaling
A brief look on the information flow with GTTP signaling
Uplink GTTP signaling

Downlink GTTP signaling

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IMSI coordination
Coordination of PS and CS resources requires that the IMSI is know
in both territories i.e. BSC (CS part) and PCU (PS part).
The MSC provides the IMSI to BSC on common ID message in
Call establishment cases
External handover cases
The SGSN provides the IMSI to the BSC on
RA update
UL- / DL-TBF establishment
PFC management (if EQoS is used)

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Paging coordination
NOM I (Gs-interface) has to be used for paging coordination
DTM does not change the CS paging procedure
The MS is always (if not attached to GPRS) is paged on the PCH
PS paging
CS paging co-ordination means that CS Paging Request is sent
to the MS on PACCH when the MS is having PS data
transmission (MS is in packet transfer mode)

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PS paging (backup slide)

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Signaling principles
Current implementation: Class A mode of operation MSs must be
able to listen to diferent frequencies in the same TS. E.g. to listen
to the (P)BCCH while in dedicated mode
New procedures have been implemented to support MSs which
cannot listen to diferent frequencies in the same TS
Small overview of signaling principles in diferent conditions is
presented below

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Accessing DTM mode principles


DTM can be ONLY entered via (CS) dedicated mode (see next slide)
IF the PS call is dropped then the MS returns to normal CS call
If the CS call is dropped then the MS returns to packet idle mode
and the network will re-establish the PS connection
In a MO call establishment DTM request is send over DCCH and
both PS as CS resources are coordinated
In a MT call establishment either the CS resources are aligned to
the PS resources or the both of the resources are coordinated
Inter-cell handover causes the DTM allocation to be terminated
and after the handover took place the PS resources are reestablished
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Entering DTM

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Call procedures
Call assignment
MO DTM call
MT DTM call
Call rejection
Call abortion

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Call assignment
When the MS is in dedicated mode the resources will change
territory (CS to PS) or be dropped
A closer look on what happens during call assignment

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The BSC selects a suitable speech codec for the DTM-CS connection
based on the existing speech codec selection rules
The BSC configures the target DTM-CS timeslot to CS use, if needed
(in PS territory)
The BSC will assign the new allocation to the MS
The BSC will move the CS connection to the target DTM-CS timeslot.
After the MS has moved to the new resources the source DTM-CS
timeslot will be configured back to CS use

BSS_12_FUD_v2_1.PPT / 13-09-2005 /

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MO DTM call
MS requests the resources via the SDCCH (not supported in 1 st release)
This happens when the MS is in dedicated mode without a CS traffic
channel
This is not supported in the first release of S12 -> PCU will reject the
setup of the call
The MS can request directly DTM resources on the SDCCH before
having a dedicated channel
A new penalty timer for call setup : DTM SDCCH CALL PENALTY TIMER
MS requests the resources via the FACCH
This happens when the MS is in dedicated mode (CS channel
allocated)
The BSC first examines the following DTM related issues before
allocation

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Network examinations
Examine if the MS has an other DTM establishment ongoing

The BSC will receive from the MSC information on the radio link
(speech codec, type of call)

BSS_12_FUD_v2_1.PPT / 13-09-2005 /

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MO DTM call network examinations


A MO DTM call can be established if the following conditions are
fulfilled:

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Cell supports DTM


MS supports DTM
A TCH is allocated for a CS speech call
MS is not already in the process of establishing a DTM call
There is no other handover procedure ongoing for the MS
CS connection release is not started
IMSI of the MS is known by the BSC
DTM request is received from the normal area of the cell

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MO call establishment flow diagram

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MO call assignment
If the call can be established then the establishment timer is
started (t_dtm_request_timer, new UTPFIL timer)

This timer controls the DTM call setup time

Before continuing with the assignment the BSC waits for a certain
number of Rxlevel measurements or until the timer has expired
before continuing with the DTM call assignment

The Rxlevel measurements provide the BTS list


If the timer expires the call assignment will be aborted

PCU receives the BTS list and selects the best BTS for setting up
of the call and the PDM checks the availability for the DTM
connection
If the DTM call can be established the resources are allocated and
the CS call will have an intra cell handover to the PS territory
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MO call setup exceptions


If there is an UL TBF ongoing or being established for the MS when
the PCU receives an allocation request then the PCU will release
the UL TBF. This could be the case if the MS abandons the ongoing
PS data transfer, enters dedicated mode and requests a DTM call
before the PCU realizes that the MS is no more using the UL TBF.
If there is a DL TBF ongoing or being established for the MS when
the PCU receives an allocation request, then the PCU will delete
the DL TBF. The untransmitted DL LLC PDUs will be kept in the
bufer so that they can be transmitted to the MS later when the
MO DTM call establishment has been completed. This means that
the PCU will continue with the MO DTM call establishment in this
case and the DL TBF establishment procedure will be started
when the MO DTM call establishment has been completed.

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MT DTM call
A MT DTM call case applies when the PCU receives DL LLC PDUs
from the SGSN and
The PCU does not have any resource reservation or
The MS has a DTM allocation but no TBFs ongoing
Two methods for an MT call establishment to start
without a DTM allocation for the MS
with a DTM allocation for the MS (ONLY with EQoS)

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MT call without a DTM allocation


In this case the PCU will start a call establishment procedure unless GTTP can be used
The following steps are taken for an MT call with and without EQoS
Without EQoS
With EQoS
Create a new PFC
Perform BTS specific selection
Perform BTS specific selection
If the PCU is already having the
Perform Admission Control
corresponding PFC context for the
procedure for the BTS
MS, then the admission control
check is not needed
Allocate resources for the DTM call
Allocate resources for the DTM call
Establish a DL TBF for the mobile
Establish a DL TBF for the mobile
(if the channel allocation
(if the channel allocation procedure
procedure is successful)
is successful)
Request resource allocation and
Request resource allocation and
TBF allocation from the call
TBF allocation from the call serving
serving BSC
BSC
When receiving the request for establishment the BSC will start the DTM assignment
procedure. All the signaling will be send on the DCCH to the MS.
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MT call establishment flow diagram

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Call release general


By having a DTM call released is meant that the MS is having a
DTM allocation ongoing which is going to be released
Call release can be initiated by:
by MS or MSC

by PCU

NOKIA

Without EQoS : The BSC will be notified with the release and a
handover from PS territory to CS territory is going to be made
With EQoS: when the last PFC context of an MS is deleted and the
MS is having a DTM allocation

by BSC

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Both PS as CS can initiate a call release

Diferent cases can cause the BSC to release the DTM connection

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MS or MSC initiated call release


MS or MSC initiated CS call release
CS side initiated DTM call release
a case where the DTM-CS channel should be changed but the
reallocation within the PS territory is not possible
PS side initiated DTM call release
The CS resources are moved back to the CS territory

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PCU initiated call release


Without EQoS the BSC is notified that the PS resources will be released
The call release will be rejected if

The MS is in handover interval state or other handover cases are


ongoing
MS or BTS power control is used

The CS-DTM call will have an intra-cell handover to the CS territory


and continue as a normal CS call

With EQoS the call will be release when the last PFC context is deleted

The PFC life-time determines how long a CS connection is kept in the PS


territory once the data flow has ceased for a DTM MS (there is a DTM
specific upper limit for the PFC life-times , DTM PFC Packet Flow Timer )
After the PCU tells the BSC that the resources will be released, the BSC
initiates an intra-cell handover.

Note 1: if there is no room to move the CS resources they will stay in the PS
territory until the MS can be moved to the CS territory
Note 2: the inter-cell handover procedure the DTM allocation is released by the
BSC before the FLUSH-LL arrives at the PCU

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BSC initiated call release


In the following cases the BSC will initiate a call release

The CS connection is released if there is another DTM allocation


ongoing for the MS.
If the MS is having an inter cell handover
The BSC has detected an assignment failure during an initial DTM call
establishment procedure.
DTM is being deactivated in the cell and GPRS remains enabled. In
this case the BSC initiates a DTM call release procedure for all the
ongoing DTM calls in the cell.
The BSC initiated DTM intra-cell handover procedure is rejected. The
CS call will be moved to the CS territory.
The BSC receives a request for in-call modification where the CS call
needs to be moved to the CS territory.

The call is released in 2 phases

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BSC informs the PCU that the MS is leaving DTM


BSC informs the PCU that the DTM-CS resources are not longer in use

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Call rejection
If the PCU cannot make the connection the following procedure
will be valid:
Resources
Available?

No

PS territory
Too
Small?

Yes

**

Yes

No

Make
connection

Move MS
to less
loaded
DTM cell*

NOKIA

BSS_12_FUD_v2_1.PPT / 13-09-2005 /

Yes

Perform
upgrade

Call
establishment

No
Abort
DTM
connection

*The received LLC PDU(s), if any, will be discarded


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Upgrade
Possible?

** Perform intra-cell HO when:


1. The target cell supports DTM.
2. The target cell is not overloaded or the traffic load in the
target cell is less than the traffic load in the source cell
3.The target cell fulfils the required signal level thresholds:
AV_RXLEV_NCELL (n) > RxLevMinCell (n) + MAX (0, Pa) and
PBGT (n) > DtmMarginPBGT (n), where
DtmMarginPBGT (n) is given by the new parameter DTM
Power Budget Margin.

Nokia Customer Confidential

Call abortion procedures


The BSC can abort an initial MO/MT DTM call establishment
procedure in the following situations:

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The MS is not in the cell where the PCU made the DTM allocation.
The DTM allocation is made for an MS whose TCH channel is
assigned for other purpose than CS speech call.
The BSC considers the made DTM allocation as unsuitable for the
MS.
The Soft Channel Capacity feature prevents the assignment of HR
speech codec mode in a situation where the PCU has packed the
DTM call on a timeslot that is already having one DTM call in HR
mode (possible only in MO case).
The DTM call establishment is aborted due to ongoing inter-cell HO
procedure.
The DTM call establishment is aborted due to ongoing DTM call
release procedure.
The DTM assignment failure is detected
The DTM call establishment fails due to some abnormal situation at
the BSC side.

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Not updated currently in RT


PFC creation case

DTM call
countersHO

DTM allocationAssignment
attempts
success

Requests
106000
MO_DTM_CALL_
REQUESTS_INI
106000
MO DTM REQ INI
105000
MT_DTM_CALL_
REQUESTS_INI

106018
DTM_ASSIGN_
COMMANDS

105009
DTM_ALLOCATIONS_
INITIAL

106004
DTM_CS_
ASSIGNMENTS

105000
MT DTM REQ INI

Request
rejects
106002
MO_DTM_CALL_
REJECTS_INI

Updated also in
RT PFC creation
case

Detailed
counters of
105000 and
106000

Detailed
counters of
105009

105020
DTM_REQ_3_DL_PS_TSL
105016
DTM_REQ_1_UL_PS_TSL

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NOKIA

105002
MT_DTM_CALL_
REJECTS_INI
106015
IGNORED_DTM_
REQUESTS_INI

105025
DTM_ALLOC_3_DL_
105021
PS_TSL
DTM_ALLOC_1_UL_
PS_TSL

BSS_12_FUD_v2_1.PPT / 13-09-2005 /

BSC level counters


Others per BTS

Success

DTM allocation succ

Reallocation

051195
INTRA_DTM_MO_
CS_TO_PS
051196
INTRA_DTM_MT_
CS_TO_PS

DTM
call
continue

Assignment
failures
106008
DTM_ASSIGN_
FAILURES_INI
106010
MS_LOST_DURING_
ASSIGNMENT
105008
DTM_TBF_ASSIGNMENT_
FAILURES

106017
DTM_IMSI_NOT_
AVAILABLE

106011
DTM_RELEASES_DUE_
PS_RELEASE
051198
INTRA_
DTM_PS_
106012
DTM_RELEASES_DUE_ TO_CS
CS_RELEAS
106013
DTM_RELEASES_DUE_
CS_HO

Detailed counters of 105002 and 106002


105004
DTM_REJECTS_NO_
RESOURCES

Release

004195
DTM_HO_DUE_LACK_
OF_RESOURCE

Nokia Customer Confidential

106014
DTM_RELEASES_DUE_
OTHER

Detailed counters
of TBF releases
072201
UL_TBF_RELEASES_
DUE_DTM
072202
DL_TBF_RELEASES_
DUE_DTM

Drop
001233
DROP_AFTER_DTM_
TCH_ASSIGN
001234
DROP_DTM_TCH_
ASCMPL_RFCH_REL

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Territory issues
Territory issues
PS and CS side of the whole story
Territory upgrade cases
Territory downgrade cases

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Territory issues
In DTM the following new territory issues apply
The CS-DTM call belongs to the PS territory (and it is handled
by the PCU)
When the dedicated GPRS capacity is considered, then only the
PS configured timeslots will be taken into account
The default GPRS capacity will be considered as a default size
of the PS territory
The CMAX parameter will be considered as an upper limit for
the size of the PS territory

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A PS and CS sides view


PS perspective:

The PCU will keep a record about the DTM-CS timeslots and the
allocations therein.
The PCU will not allocate any TBFs on the timeslots that are reserved
for DTM-CS connections.
When computing the traffic load or capacity on the PS channels, the
PCU will exclude the DTM-CS timeslots.
The PCU will note the DTM allocations in the territory downgrade
procedure as well as the permission request procedure.

CS perspective:

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The BSC will handle the traffic on the DTM-CS connections.


The BSC will not allocate any other CS connections on the DTM-CS
timeslots than the DTM related CS connections.
When computing the BTS load for speech codec mode selection
purposes the DTM-CS timeslots will be considered as occupied CS
channels.
When the BSC triggers a territory downgrade procedure in order to
reduce the size of the PS territory, the afected DTM-CS timeslots need
to be downgraded too.
BSS_12_FUD_v2_1.PPT / 13-09-2005 /

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Territory upgrade
What does not change
The PCUshould request a territory upgrade procedure if the
load on the PSconfigured timeslots exceeds the current
thresholds
The BSC should trigger a territory upgrade procedure if the size
ofthe PS territory is smaller than the default PS territory size
Territory upgrade procedure will be triggered if the PS territory
is too small for a DTM allocation
What is new
The BSC should trigger a territory upgrade procedure if the
number of PS configured timeslots in the PS territory goes
below the dedicated GPRS capacity due to DTM allocations

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Territory downgrade
The PCUrequests a territory downgrade procedure if the load on
the PSconfigured timeslots goes below the current thresholds

New constraint: The PCU will ensure that the number of PS


configured timeslots in the PS territory does not go below the
dedicated GPRS capacity (smallest amount of TS will be MIN
{ (size default_size), (size - dedicated dtm_cs) }

The BSC may trigger a territory downgrade (permission request)


procedure if the CS load situation requires an extension of the CS
territory

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New constraint: The BSC will ensure that the number of PS


configured timeslots in the PS territory does not go below the
dedicated GPRS capacity (smallest amount of TS will be MIN
{ (size default_size), (size - dedicated dtm_cs) }
BSS_12_FUD_v2_1.PPT / 13-09-2005 /

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Handovers
Call reallocation
Intra cell handovers
Inter BSC handovers
What can go wrong with handovers
Needless handovers
ISHO

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Call Reallocation
Reallocation happens when
A DTM call is established
A DTM call is having a handover

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DTM call reallocation


Reallocation
attempts
106006
DTM_REALLO_CS_
REQUESTS
105005
DTM_REALLO_REQ_
DUE_PS_QUAL
105006
DTM_REALLO_REQ_
DUE_PS_OTHER

Reallocation
of DTM succ

HO
Success

Reallocation
assignment
attempts

DTM reallocation succ


051197
INTRA_DTM_MT_
PS_TO_PS

106018
DTM_ASSIGN_
COMMANDS
105010
DTM_REALLOCATIONS

106004
DTM_CS_
ASSIGNMENTS

MO missing

Reallocation
assignment
failures

Reallocation
rejects
106007
DTM_REALLO_CS_
REJECTS
105007
DTM_REALLO_PS_
REJECTS

Detailed
counters of
105005,1005006,
106006

Detailed
counters of
105010

106009
DTM_ASSIGN_
FAILURES_REALLO

105025
DTM_ALLOC_3_DL_
105021
PS_TSL
DTM_ALLOC_1_UL_
PS_TSL

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Are these updated


in reallocation?

Drop

106010
MS_LOST_DURING_
ASSIGNMENT

001233
DROP_AFTER_DTM_
TCH_ASSIGN
001234
DROP_DTM_TCH_
ASCMPL_RFCH_REL

Is this updated in reallocation?

105020
DTM_REQ_3_DL_PS_TSL
105016
DTM_REQ_1_UL_PS_TSL

BSC level counters


Others per BTS

Detailed counters of 105002 and 106002


105008
DTM_TBF_ASSIGNMENT_
FAILURES

BSS_12_FUD_v2_1.PPT / 13-09-2005 /

106017
DTM_IMSI_NOT_
AVAILABLE

Nokia Customer Confidential

004195
DTM_HO_DUE_LACK_
OF_RESOURCE

Handovers
Handovers can be controlled by
The PCU
The BSC
But what always happens is that the PS call will be dropped and
the CS call will be handover to the CS side before changing the
cell
Diferent kind of handovers
Intra cell handover
Inter cell handover
Intra BSC, Intra PCU
Intra BSC, Inter PCU
Inter BSC

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Intra cell handover


This type of handover mostly happens when an MS is entering or
leaving DTM mode
Both BSC as PCU can initiate handover
When the Intra cell handover succeeds the same procedure as
DTM call assignment is used and the TBF scheduling is started

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PCU initiated intra cell handover


The PCU may initiate an intra-cell handover for a DTM allocation
due to the following reasons

A territory downgrade permission request procedure triggers a DTMCS reallocation procedure for a DTM allocation
A territory downgrade procedure triggers a DTM-CS reallocation
procedure for a DTM allocation
The Quality Control (QC, does not require EQoS) function at the PCU
triggers a DTM-CS reallocation procedure for a DTM allocation
A PFC creation (needs EQoS), modification or deletion procedure
triggers a DTM-CS reallocation procedure for a DTM allocation

Once the PCU has found new resources for the DTM call the PCU
will

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Stop scheduling the PS resources belonging to the old DTM allocation


Inform the BSC about the new DTM allocation. The DTM allocation
consists of a CS resource and possibly a PS resource reservation

BSS_12_FUD_v2_1.PPT / 13-09-2005 /

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BSC initiated intra cell handover


The BSC controls the handovers
The BSC can initiate an intra-cell handover for a DTM allocation
due to the following reasons:

The speech codec mode of the ongoing DTM-CS connection needs to


be changed
The DTM-CS connection needs to be moved to another timeslot due to
quality reasons. The existing quality monitoring algorithms at the BSC
shall be used to trigger this.

The BSC cannot select the target timeslot for the DTM-CS
connection because the PCU takes care of the DTM channel
allocation. Therefore, the handover due to quality reasons might
not always bring the required result.
A BTS specific indication is used whether it is allowed or forbidden
to apply HR speech codec mode in the DTM reallocation
procedure.
Same procedure when resources have been found
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Inter BSC handover


The BSC will perform an inter-cell handover procedure for a DTM
MS, as currently done in S11.5, without consulting the PCU

This means that the BSC moves the DTM-CS connection to the target
cells CS territory without reserving DTM resources in the target cell until
a request for a DTM allocation is received from the MS or from the SGSN

After the handover procedure has been completed the BSC will send
the DTM INFORMATION message to the MS on the main DCCH (if MS
was in DTM mode and new cell supports DTM)
After the cell change the DTM MS can perform a Cell Update or a
Routing Area Update procedure via the GTTP signaling procedure or
via a DTM allocation.

The Cell Update procedure is done if the MS is GPRS attached and in


Ready state and if the RA has not changed during the handover
procedure.
The Routing Area Update procedure is done if the MS is GPRS attached
and if the RA has changed during the handover procedure

After handover BSC uses normal DTM allocation procedure


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Things that can go wrong in inter BSC


handover
If the inter-cell handover procedure fails so that the MS returns to
the source DTM-CS channel the CS call continues on the source
DTM-CS timeslot. But the PS call does not.
If the timer T3103 expires during the DTM intra-cell handover
procedure the BSC will release the CS resources allocated for the
MS and inform the PCU that the MS has left dedicated mode

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Avoiding needless handovers


When a DTM MS is having a DTM allocation in the cell, the BCS will
avoid doing needless inter-cell handovers for the DTM MS.
Therefore, the following inter-cell handovers will be avoided when
a DTM MS is having a DTM allocation:

MSC controlled traffic reason handover


BSC controlled traffic reason handover
Umbrella handover
Inter-cell direct access
IUO to child cell (super reuse frequencies are not supported by DTM)

In addition, the following intra-cell handovers will be avoided


when a DTM MS is having a DTM allocation:

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An AMR FR speech codec packing to AMR HR speech codec


Handovers between regular and super re-used TRXs
Load based handovers between segments BTSs

BSS_12_FUD_v2_1.PPT / 13-09-2005 /

Nokia Customer Confidential

A closer look to procedures


When an intra-cell handover is triggered the following procedure
is followed:

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Search for and order neighbor cells according to search method


(depending on reason for handover)
Order neighbor cells according to DTM capability (ADJ_DTM_ENABLED)
Check if which cells are overloaded and exclude them from potential
candidate. The cells with the lowest load will be put higher on the list

BSS_12_FUD_v2_1.PPT / 13-09-2005 /

Nokia Customer Confidential

Moving a DTM initiated call to a DTM


cell
When a DTM capable MS is establishing a CS call on a non-DTM capable
cell the BSC will try to move it to a DTM capable cell (increase of
handovers)
The BSC will initiate an eased PBGT handover to a DTM capable cell as
soon as the coverage of at least one DTM capable adjacent cell is
available. The following formula applies

AV_RXLEV_NCELL (n) > RxLevMinCell (n) + MAX (0, Pa) and


HoMarginPBGT (n) > PBGT (n) > DtmMarginPBGT (n)

After a successful intra-BSC PBGT handover the PBGT handover back to


the non-DTM capable source cell is allowed only if :

PBGT (SERV_CELL) < DtmMarginPBGT (SERV_CELL) - 2dB

PBGT (SERV_CELL) = (A - AV_RXLEV_NCELL (SOURCE_CELL))


(B - AV_RXLEV_DL_HO - (BsTxPwrMax - BS_TXPWR))
B = MsTxPwrMaxGSM (BTS) or MsTxPwrMaxGSM1x00 (BTS)
A = MsTxPwrMaxGSM (ADJ) or MsTxPwrMaxGSM1x00 (ADJ)

After a successful inter-BSC PBGT handover the BSC will set PBGT
handover back to the non-DTM capable source cell on the penalty bench
And if it fails the connection will not be setup / continued
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Inter system handovers


When the PCU receives information that a DTM MS that is in
dedicated mode in a DTM capable cell (DTM co-ordination
indicates this) can move to UTRAN, then the PCU will do the
following:

If the WCDMA FDD NCCR Enabled parameter indicates that ISNCCR


procedures are enabled in the BSC and a ISHO will be performed
If the WCDMA FDD NCCR Enabled parameter indicates that ISNCCR
procedures are disabled in the BSC, then the PCU will ignore the
request to make an ISHO.

The NCCR specific parameters NCCR Control Mode and WCDMA


FDD NCCR Preferred will be ignored in this context (the NCCR
procedures are not applied in DTM)
Non-DTM but WCDMA capable MSs will be handed over to WCDMA
as soon as the necessary information for the decision is available
and the operator has so indicated by the new parameter, ISHO
Preferred For non-DTM MS.
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DTM handover counters


DTM
DTMCELL
CELL

DTM_CALL_HO_ATT_TO_DTM_CELL
DTM

DTM_CALL_HO_ATT_TO_NON_DTM
DTMCELL
CELL

DTM_CALL_HO_SUCC_TO_DTM_CELL

NON
NONDTM
DTMCELL
CELL

DTM_CALL_HO_SUCC_TO__NON_DTM

DTM_MS_HO_ATT_TO_DTM_C
DTM_CALL_HO_FROM_DTM_CELL

DTM capable MS
Dual Transfer Mode

DTM_MS_HO_SUCC_TO__DTM_

Updated only in BSC


internal inter-cell HO; not
in external HO (inter BSC
HO)
DTM_MS_HO_ATT_TO_DTM_CELL

DTM_MS_HO_ATT_TO_NON_DTM

DTM capable MS
DTM_MS_HO_SUCC_TO_DTM_CELL
Dedicated mode DTM_MS_HO_SUCC_TO__NON_DTM

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NON_DTM_BASED_ISHO_ATTEMP

NON_DTM_BASED_ISHO_SUCCESS

NON_DTM_BASED_ISHO_ATTEMPT
NON_DTM_BASED_ISHO_SUCCESS
WCDMA capable but
non DTM capable MS
Dedicated mode

DTM capable
MS
Dedicated
mode
WCDMA capable but
non DTM capable MS
Dedicated mode

WCDMA
WCDMACELL
CELL

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Related stuf
Location area update
Routing area update
Speech codec selection

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LA and RA updates
Cell Update procedure in dedicated mode, packet idle mode and
Ready state; performed on the main DCCH
MS

BSS

MSC

SGSN

CS dedicated mode
[Main DCCH] GTTP Information (LLC PDU)

UL-UNITDATA (LLC PDU)

Cell Update procedure in dedicated mode, packet idle mode and


Ready state; performed on a TBF
MS

BSS

MSC

CS dedicated mode
DTM Request
DTM Assignment Command
[Uplink TBF]

RLC/MAC block(s)
UL-Unitdata

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SGSN

Speech codec selection


The BSC will use the existing algorithms for channel quality
monitoring on the DTM-CS timeslots.
The BSC will use the existing algorithms and thresholds to change
the speech codec mode when needed with the following
exception:

The BSC will not trigger an intra-cell handover procedure for a DTM
call in the purpose of changing the speech codec mode from FR to HR
(intra-cell HO due to HR -> FR change is OK and the FR -> HR change
is OK if the intra-cell HO is triggered by some other reasons).
The first DTM release the BSC will always use the FR speech codec
mode for a DTM call but in the later DTM releases (possibly CD release
for S12) it will be possible to use also HR mode.

Since the change in the speech codec mode requires a change in


the CS timeslot, the BSC will trigger an intra-cell handover
procedure for the DTM allocation, when the speech codec mode
needs to be changed from HR to FR during the DTM call.
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Planning issues
Planning issues
Deployment of DTM
Capacity planning
Fragmentation
Power control
Signaling
Parameters
KPIs
Traffic parameters
Activation of DTM

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Planning issues
Deployment of DTM

The territory deployment strategy will most likely not change in the
beginning of DTM rollout.
When investigating the current territory situation the following guideline
can be followed. 4 TSs can have 2 simultaneous users. Together with the
dtm_1 KPI a good overview can be achieved about if the territory is not
too small.
All BTSs or SEGs should have GPRS territory
When planning DTM on top of existing network typical dimensioning
process should be followed
DTM requires at least 2 TS (one for PS and one for CS TSL)
Operator should not require to make changes on territory size due to DTM

Coverage planning

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Uplink coverage might be reduced regarding uplink multislot allocation.


The coverage of DTM does not difer from the coverage of speech calls
and EDGE connections
Otherwise DTM has comparable coverage to speech calls and EDGE
connection
BSS_12_FUD_v2_1.PPT / 13-09-2005 /

Nokia Customer Confidential

More planning issues


Transmission

No extra E1 / T1 required initially (if not needed in the first place)


1 DTM CS allocation will take 1 RTSL from PCU2 connectivity
If EDGE has been implemented, number of connected RTSLs is not
typically limiting PCU connectivity (EDAP is limiting factor)

DTM will have some influence for both CS and PS traffic

Blocking in CS will prevent DTM handovers and establishment


(mobility)
Blocking in PS will prevent DTM connections

The use of DTM should not add blocking for normal speech users
All RNW counters are updated in the same way as normal CS
allocations (like handover, Dropped call, SDCCH, etc)

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Capacity planning
Capacity planning for DTM is influenced by the following factors:

TS allocation (all DTM TS, both CS and PS, are allocated from the GPRS
territory)
Used DTM applications and the typical DTM traffic profile
GPRS territory fragmentation (a DTM CS TS cannot be multiplexed
with a PS TS)
DTM call allocations and reallocations

Because of the simultaneous CS and PS connection, DTM


influences both CS and PS traffic

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The penetration of DTM-capable MSs


Used DTM applications
DTM traffic profile
DTM service pricing
Existing data traffic and traffic mix
CS traffic/blocking rate

BSS_12_FUD_v2_1.PPT / 13-09-2005 /

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Fragmentations
A high number of simultaneous DTM users create PS territory
fragmentation.
if the expected number of DTM users at service launch is considered
to be large, re-dimensioning of the existing network is recommended
If the DTM user locations can be identified, some single cells that
have simultaneous DTM users may require more CS and PS TSs
Especially the GPRS territory may need to be increased if the other
data services in the BTS require high data rates or multislot
allocations
The PCU allocates PS resources for the DTM users far from the CS-PS
territory border
In highly-loaded PS territories the PS resources can be allocated from
the middle of the PS territory. This causes fragmentation to the PS
timeslots which decreases the PCU capability to give multislot
allocations for other data connections
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Power control issues


The BSC will limit the range of the transmission power of a CS
connection when the CS connection is part of a DTM allocation.

the DL transmission power of a DTM-CS connection will be between


[PMAX 10 dB, PMAX], where PMAX is the maximum transmission
power that can be used in the given TRX.

Since the GPRS specific DL power control is not supported in


BSS12, the PCU will apply the same transmission power to DTM
related DL TBFs as is used in normal GPRS/EGPRS operation.

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Signaling
The signaling load generated by the DTM co-ordination is
dependent on the penetration of DTM mobiles.

when the large majority of the mobiles are DTM capable, then the
DTM co-ordination will generate a considerable signaling load at the
PCUSIG interface

In the overload situation the BSC is perhaps not able to handle all
the DTM co-ordination messages generated and the message
might be discarded. The following can happen

The PCU may not receive an indication that a DTM MS has entered
dedicated mode.
If the PCU receives a data PDU for the MS in this case, the DL TBF
establishment fails and the MS is considered as unreachable.

The PCU may not receive an indication that a DTM MS has left
dedicated mode. The PCU is not able to remove the MS from the
IMSI record resulting in a hanging record that consumes memory
of the PCU.
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DTM parameters
BSC parameters
DTM PFC Packet Flow Timer (DPPFT)
DTM Fragmentation Penalty (DFP)
ISHO Preferred For Non-DTM MS (IPND)
BTS/SEG parameters
DTM Enabled (DENA)
Adjacent cell parameters
DTM Enabled (DTM)
DTM Power Budget Margin (DPM)
PRFILE parameters
DTM_CALL_ASSIGN_TIMER (Class 46)
DTM_CALL_PENALTY_TIMER (Class 10)
MAX_LAPD_LENGHT (Class 46)
DTM_MS_CL_11_SUPPORT_EDA (Class 46)
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DTM BSC parameters


DTM PFC Packet Flow Timer (DPPFT)

Defines the maximum time accepted for a Packet Flow Timer (PFT)
during a DTM allocation. A PFC life-time determines how long the CS
connection of a DTM MS is kept in the PS territory after the data traffic
has ceased for the MS.

High value = more resources taken, low value = slow PDP connection time

DTM Fragmentation Penalty (DFP)

This parameter defines the value of the fragmentation penalty. This


parameter is used to balance the trade-of between searching for a DTM
allocation that gives the optimal DTM-PS resources and for a DTM
allocation that avoids fragmentation of PS resources in the PS territory.

High value = low fragmentation, low value = high fragmentation

ISHO Preferred For Non-DTM MS (IPND)

With this parameter the operator may determine whether an intersystem handover is to be triggered for a DTM incapable but WCDMA
capable MS as soon as an appropriate WCDMA target cell is available.

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DTM Segment parameter


DTM ENABLED (SEG)
Indicates if DTM is enabled in a SEGMENT.
Note that DTM feature can be activated only in segments that
belong to a DTM capable PCU.

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DTM adjacent cell parameters


ADJACENT DTM ENABLED (ADJ)
Indicates if adjacent cell supports DTM or not. Parameter can be given at
Adjacent Cell creation when neighbour is external i.e. under another BSC.
If Adjacent Cell is created with BTS reference, the value is copied from the
reference BTS (Master-BTS).

DTM POWER BUDGET MARGIN (DPM)


With this parameter you define a power budget handover threshold for
inter-cell HOs:
a) DTM capable mobiles to DTM capable neighbour cell when the
serving cell is not supporting DTM,
b) DTM call attempts to DTM capable neighbour cell when there is no
free resources for a DTM allocation in the serving DTM capable cell,
c) DTM calls from DTM capable cell to non-DTM capable cell.

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DTM PRFILE Parameters


DTM_CALL_ASSIGN_TIMER

Defines the length for a timer that is used to supervise the DTM call
establishment procedure at the PCU.
The DTM call assignment is considered to be successfully completed when the
PCU receives a valid RLC/MAC block from the mobile. The timer is then stopped.
The DTM call assignment is considered to be unsuccessfully completed when
the supervising timer expires. The assigned TBF is then abnormally released

DTM_CALL_PENALTY_TIMER

This parameter defines the value for the Wait Indication.


When a MO DTM call establishment is rejected the Wait Indication timer is used.
The rejection is sent with a DTM REJECT message. The Wait Indication within
the message determines the time period during which the MS is not allowed to
make a new packet access attempt to the same cell.

MAX_LAPD_LENGHT

Defines the maximum length for a GTTP message.

DTM_MS_CL_11_SUPPORT_EDA

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This parameter determines whether the PCU is allowed to assume that a DTM
Multislot Class 11 mobile supports extended dynamic allocation mode.
With this assumption the PCU is able to allocate 2 UL PS timeslots for a DTM
Multislot Class 11 at the MO DTM call establishment.
BSS_12_FUD_v2_1.PPT / 13-09-2005 /

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MS Capability
TCH RESERV BY DTM MS - Number of events where a CS speech
connection is established for a DTM capable MS. Note that it is
possible to estimate the DTM penetration (user activity afects this of
course) when the value of this counter is compared with the one that
counts the corresponding CS connection establishments for all MSs.
UL TBF RELEASES DUE DTM - Number of cases where an ongoing
UL TBF needs to be released due to a DTM procedure
DL TBF RELEASES DUE DTM - Number of cases where an ongoing
DL TBF needs to be released due to a DTM procedure
DL RLC CS1 BLKS TO DTM MS - Number of RLC data blocks
transmitted with CS-1 to mobiles having a DTM allocation
DL RLC CS2 BLKS TO DTM MS - Number of RLC data blocks
transmitted with CS-2 to mobiles having a DTM allocation
LLC BYTES UL DTM - Number of bytes transmitted in UL direction in
DTM mode. Includes both GPRS and EGPRS modes (EQoS counter)
LLC BYTES DL DTM - Number of bytes transmitted in DL direction in
DTM mode. Includes both GPRS and EGPRS modes
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DTM Handover counters


DTM MS HO ATT TO DTM CELL - Number of attempts where the
handover for a DTM capable MS in dedicated mode is started to the
DTM capable cell
DTM MS HO SUCC TO DTM CELL - Number of the successful
handovers where a DTM capable MS in dedicated mode is handed
over to the DTM capable cell
DTM MS HO ATT TO NON DTM CELL - Number of attempts where
the handover for a DTM capable MS in dedicated mode is started to
the NON-DTM capable cell
DTM MS HO SUCC TO NON DTM CEL - Number of the successful
handovers where a DTM capable MS in dedicated mode is handed to
the NON-DTM capable cell
DTM CALL HO FROM DTM CELL - Number of events where an MS
that was having a DTM allocation in the source cell is handed over to
the cell
DTM HO DUE LACK OF RESOURCE - Number of events where the
BSC triggers an inter-cell handover procedure for a DTM MS due to
lack of resources in the source cell
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Key Performance Indicators


Dtm_1: Potential DTM MS traffic penetration
Dtm_2: DTM CS traffic ratio
Dtm_3: DTM PS payload ratio
Dtm_4: UL DTM PS payload
Dtm_5: DL DTM PS payload
Dtm_6: DTM allocation success ratio
Dtm_7: DTM initial allocation failure ratio due to lack of resources
Dtm_8: DTM CS connection establishment failure due to link failure
Dtm_9: DTM PS connection establishment failure due to link failure
Dtm_10: DTM CS drop call ratio
Dtm_11: DTM reallocation success ratio

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Key Performance Indicators


Dtm_12: DTM PS drop ratio
Dtm_13: DTM CS traffic
Dtm_14: DTM fragmentation
Dtm_15: DTM HO success ratio
Dtm_16: DTM HO attempts to non DTM cell ratio
Dtm_17: DL multislot soft blocking for DTM
Dtm_18: UL multislot soft blocking for DTM

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Traffic counters (1/3)


DROP AFTER DTM TCH ASSIGN - Number of dropped DTM calls
after the TCH is assigned
DROP DTM TCH ASCMPL RFCH REL - Number of DTM TCH drops
between Assignment Complete and RF Channel Release Ack
messages
M TRAFFIC LOAD - Number of messages received from the MSC
reporting cause traffic_load
EXT IN DTM NO RES AVAIL - Number of successful external
incoming handovers due to reason that there are no free PS resources
available for a DTM call in the source cell
EXT IN DTM TRAFFIC - Number of successful external incoming
handovers for DTM calls due to PCU quality control and due to reason
that DTM is disabled in the source cell
INTER DTM NO RES AVAIL - Number of successful internal inter-cell
handovers due to reason that there are no free PS resources available
for a DTM call in the source cell
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Traffic counters (2/3)


INTRA DTM MO CS TO PS - Number of successful internal intracell handovers due to mobile originated DTM call establishment
INTRA DTM MT CS TO PS - Number of successful internal intracell handovers due to mobile terminated DTM call establishment
INTRA DTM MT PS TO PS - Number of successful internal intracell handovers due to PCU initiated DTM call reallocation
INTRA DTM PS TO CS - Number of successful intra-cell
handovers due to DTM call release
EXT OUT DTM NO RES AVAIL - Number of successful external
outgoing handovers due to reason that there are no free PS
resources available for a DTM call in the serving cell
EXT OUT DTM DISABLED - Number of successful external
outgoing handovers for DTM calls due to reason that DTM is
disabled in the serving cell
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Traffic counters (3/3)


EXT OUT DTM HO TO DTM - Number of successful external
outgoing handovers for DTM capable mobile stations due to
reason that serving cell does not support DTM
EXT OUT DTM HO TO WCDMA - Number of successful external
outgoing handovers for mobile stations that support WCDMA but
does not support DTM
INTER DTM DISABLED - Number of successful internal inter-cell
handovers for DTM calls due to reason that DTM is disabled in the
source cell

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Activation of DTM
1. Activate IMSI delivery on the MSC.
In a Nokia MSC, IMSI delivery is active when the value of the COMMON ID
INFORMATION SUPPORTED BSSAP parameter is YES.
Check the value of the COMMON ID INFORMATION SUPPORTED
parameter (EDB).
If necessary, change the value of the parameter to YES (EDT).
2. Activate DTM on the BSC.
Check that the PCU2 and DTM licences are active (W7I).
Check that the PCU2 and DTM feature states are ON (W7I).
Check that (E)GPRS is enabled in the segment (EQO).
Change the value of the DTM enabled parameter to Y (EQV).
3. Test the activation.
Create PS DTM Measurement and CS DTM Measurement (TPM).
Start the measurements (TPS).
Wait until the measurements are enabled and check them (TPI).
Establish a voice call between two MSs, one of which is DTM capable.
Establish a PS connection with the DTM-capable MS.
Disconnect the calls.
Check the measurement data.
Stop the measurements (TPE).
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Additional reading
3GPP release 4 TS 43.055 Dual Transfer Mode
3GPP TS 44.018, v 5.16.0, Mobile radio interface layer 3
specification, Radio Resource Control (RRC) protocol.
(E)GPRS Radio Networks - Planning theory v1.0
(E)GPRS Radio Networks - Dimensioning and Planning Guidelines v
1.0
EQoS Planning Theory

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