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Extrusion-The Center of all

polymer processing

Extrusion

The basic and most common


component of all polymer
processing equipment

Injection molding
Blown film
Profile extrusion

Extrusion

Profile shapes e.g. rods, fibers, tubes, etc.


Films and sheets.
Covering on wire and cables.
Profile Extrusion
Note: Die Swell, Orifice design and Post
forming

Pipe Extrusion
Sheet Extrusion
Film Extrusion
> 0.25mm( 0.01 in) sheet
<=0.25mm - film

Extrusion

Has many functions

Melt
Mix
Compound
Pressurize

Extrusion

Operation Principle: five steps


The extruder: plasticated & forced out through
the die
The die: The hot molten of soft plastics takes
shape.
Forming: The hot material is further shaped.
Post-forming: The material is cut or further
shaped.
Secondary processing

Extrusion

Is basically a feed screw with heated a


heated barrel

Extrusion

Why

Plug heating is not effective because the


thermal conductivity of most plastics is
too low-proportional to electrical
conductivity
Heating from the outside-in is not
efficient and results in high thermal

gradients

Extrusion

Thermal conductivity
The amount of heat conducted through a
sample:
Fourier Law of Conduction:

q x
x

Heat flow

Heat flux (qx) through a wall

1> 2
qx

dx

q x
x

2 1
q x

x
x

W
qx 2
m

Heat flow

Heat flux (qx)


.
qx

d
q x (dy ) Q(dxdy ) q x dx dy
(dxdy )
dt
q
d
q x (dy ) Q(dxdy ) q x dy x dxdy
(dxdy )
x
dt
q x
d
Q(dxdy )
dxdy
(dxdy )
x
dt
q
d

Q x
,...q x
x
dt
x
2 d
2
x
dt

qx+dx

dy
dx

Heat flow

Heat flux (qx)


.
qx

2 d
2
0 S .S .
x
dt
2
2

x
( x) Ax b

qx+dx

dy
dx

Solution to heat flow

Thin films
Long slabs
Particles
Melt removal
Pressure-induced melt removal
DRAG-INDUCED MELT REMOVAL

Melt removal

Pressure induced removal


F

Heated tool

Melt removal

Drag induced melt removal

Heated tool

Extruder

Extruder
Hopper
Screw: The heart of the extruder
Three-zone screw is the most used type

(1) Feed zone

(2) Compression zone (transition zone)

greatest channel depth


decreasing channel depth

(3) Metering zone

Assures proper delivery amount

Extrusion zone

The Screw is a melt drag


design

Screw flow

Need drag at
barrel

Melt profile

Classical melt cross section

Functions of a screw

Convey
Mix
Plasticating (melting)
Metering
Venting

Transition (Compression)
zone

Promote both the compression and heating of


the plastic granules.
Uniformly tapered,

Increasing root diameter


Reduces the available volume between flights
Compressing the granules.
Air is purged back through the hopper.
Heating,

partly by conduction (15%)


mainly by friction from rotary shear (85%)

Mixed into a homogenous melt.


one-fourth to one-third the entire screw length

Metering section

Accurately controls amount of melt


Assures smooth melt flow

Check valve

Prevent back flow during injection

Ball check valve


Ring check valve

Located at tip of screw


Screen pack maybe at final section
to trap contaminants

Two stage

Release of entrapped volatiles &


moisture
Better metering
Better appearance, uniformity and
properties

Twin Screws

More is better (but at a cost)

Twin screws

From SPE

Twin Screw

Use with reactive extrusion


Often a modular design
Relatively expensive
More difficult to operate
Good melting
Good venting
Can overload motor

Twin screws

Modular design:

Twin screws

Better conveying charteristics

Twin screws

Fully-intermeshing-co-rotating

Twin screws

No wiping

From SPE

No wiping

Wiping

Screw output:

Flow (Assuming no back flow!)

Vbz=Melt velocity in Z-Direction


Fd and Fp=Shape factor
W=Channel width
D=Screw diameter
N=Screw speed (Hz)
h=Channel depth
L=Screw length
P=Pressure
=Pitch
=Clearance
fl=leakage

Screw sizes

15 in dia.!

Die swell

Exit flow is larger


than die opening
=D/Do
Typically 1.12

Do
D

Die Swell

Die orifice

Extruded profile

Die swell

As a function of viscosity:

Faster flow,
more
molecular
alignment in
flow channel

D/D
o

Die swell

As a function of viscosity:
MW increase

D/D
o

Longer chains fold back


on each other once
outside die

Die swell

As a function of die temperature:


Decreasing temperature
T

D/D
o

Lower temperature
reduce folding
possibility after existing

Die swell

D/D
o

As a function of die design


(length/diameter)

Chains recover random orientation with flow

L/D

Die swell

Die design

More die swell


Less die swell

Melt fracture

Shear stress at 105 N/m2


Irregular flow
Limit flow

Limit production
Limit profits

Melt fracture

Two driving forces

Slip and stick-Melt sticks to wall then


breaks free causing pulsation in
pressure
Skin rupture-Die swell causes
pressure build up in melt at exist,
then with sudden cooling the surface
breaks

Melt fracture

Slip and stick

Skin rupture

Melt fracture-reductions

Decrease entrance angle


Increase temperature

Reduce viscosity
Reduce shear stress

Increase die diameter (reduce


stress)
Reduce molecular weight

Die Design

Three major parts


Manifold
Inlet channel

Land

Die Design

Die Flow (Newtonian flow)

For a circular die:


R=Pipe radius
=Viscosity
L=Pipe length
P=Pressure drop

R P
Q(P )
8L
4

For a rectangular die:

WH P
Q(P )
12 L
3

W=Pipe width
H=Height of opening
=Viscosity
L=Pipe length
P=Pressure drop

Cross over of screw and


die
Large die opening
Flow of typical screw

Small die opening

Blown film

Calendering

95% of sheet &film products are


PVC.
A series of heated, revolving
rollers progressively squeezed
thermoplastics stock to the
desired thickness in the forms of
sheet or film.
Products: handbags, shoes, and
luggage.
Advantages: minimum of cleaning
Disadvantages: expensive process

Troubleshooting

Melt Fracture

Streamlining the flow channel


Reduce shear stress

Increase die temperature


Opening die at land region
Reduce extrusion rate
Change die wall material (Ceramic insert)

Change material (add processing


agents)

Troubleshooting

Voids

Volatiles
Degradation
Not enough venting
Cooling too fast

Trouble shooting

Vent flow-Material coming out of vent

Root cause is imbalance between stages


Starve feeding
Reduce screw speed
Cool first stage
Increase temperature in second stage
Open die gap
Check screen pack or use low mesh

Troubleshooting

Air entrapment

Root cause-air does not get out of


screw in time
Use large sized pellets
Use high compression screw
Shorten feed
Use vented extruder
Vacuum on hopper

Troubleshooting

Gels-cross linked particles-two


sources

P-Gels; from polymerization-call


supplier
E-Gels; from extrusion

Particles sticking to screw


Look for dead spot
Clean screw and look for scratches

Troubleshooting

Poor mixing

Add mixing section to screw: