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It is time toSensor

turn up
Temperature
the heat but first you
must learn how to
measure it

Temperature Measurement Scales


Imperial
Fahrenheit (F) /
Rankine (R)
+/- 460
212F

672R

32F

492R

0
F

460R

-460F

0R

Metric
Celsius (C) / Kelvin
(K)
+/- 273
100C

373K

0C

273K

-18C

255K

-273C

0K

Fahrenheit
[F] = [C] 9/5 +
32
Celsius
[C] = ([F] 32)
5/9
Kelvin
[K] = [C] +
273.15
Rankine
[R] = [F] +
459.67

Relationship of Temperature Measurement Scales

(F) = 9/5*(C) +32


(C) = 5/9*[(F) 32]
(F) = (R) 459.67
(C) = (K) 273.15

Methods of Temperature Measurement

1. Thermocouples
2. Thermistors
3. Electrical resistance change (RTD)
4. Pyrometers
5. Expansion of materials

Filled Systems

A filled system is a metallic assembly that


consists of a bulb, small-diameter tubing (known
as capillary), and a Bourdon spring.
An indicator linked to the Bourdon tube indicates
temperature. Sometimes bellows and diaphragms
are used instead of a Bourdon.
The system is filled with a liquid or
gas that expands and contracts as the
temperature sensed at the bulb
increases and decreases.

This expansion/contraction is
translated into a mechanical motion.

Filled Systems

The filled-system type of measurement is generally used for local indication or for
temperature sensing in self-actuated temperature control valves.

Its use has decreased over the years, but there are still some applications for it.

This device is an improvement over the liquid-in-glass thermometer.

It needs no power to function and is simple, rugged, self-contained, and accurate over
narrow temperature spans.

However, the units bulb may be too large to fit existing applications, and if the filled
system fails, the whole system must be replaced, which is expensive.

In addition, the capillary tubing is generally limited to a distance of 250 ft. (80 m), and
the filled system as a whole is slow to respond and relatively expensive.

Moreover, it is susceptible to ambient temperature changes around the capillary, and


ambient temperature compensation is often necessary.

The capillarys material of construction should be compatible with the surrounding


environment.

Finally, the bulb must be sufficiently immersed to ensure that the actual temperature is
being measured.

Bimetallic

In a bimetallic device a spiral made of two metals with different


coefficients of expansion expands as the temperature increases.

The movement generated by the expansion drives an indicator on a


scale.

Industrial bimetallics use a helical coil to fit inside a stem.

Most temperature switches operate on this principle, except that the


pointer is replaced with a micro switch.
Precision-made bearings and guides provide
minimum acceptable friction for the moving
components.

Bimetallic

The bimetallic method of measurement is generally used in local temperature gages and
switches.

To facilitate the reading of process temperatures, plants usually select all-angle


gages with a 5 in. (120 mm) diameter dial.

A capillary type is sometimes used for operating visibility.

If vibration exists, the plant may have to fill the thermometer with a dampening fluid that
is compatible with the process fluid, in case of leakage.

The bimetallic has a simple construction and few moving parts and requires little
maintenance.

Its cost is the lowest of all temperature-measuring devices. However, its accuracy is low,
and it provides no remote indication.

Calibrating bimetallics requires immersing them in a bath of known temperature.

Thermoc ouples

When 2 dissimilar metals are joined together to form a


junction, an emf is produced which is proportional to the
temperature being sensed.

Seebeck Effect:
The generation of
current in a circuit
comprising of two wires
of dissimilar metals in
the presence of
temperature difference

The magnitude of emf depends on the junction


temperature.
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Typical Industrial Thermocouple Assembly

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Thermocouple Types
TCs are identified by a single letter type and grouped according to their
temperature range

Base Metals up to 1000 C


Type J, Type E, Type T, Type K

Noble Metals up to 2000 C


Type R, Type S, Type B

Refractory Metals up to 2600 C


Type C, Type D, Type G

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Metal Combinations
TC
Type

Colours

Range C

Positive Lead
(Coloured)

Negative Lead
(all Red)

White/Red

-210 to 1200 Iron

Constantan

Purple/Red

-270 to1000

Chromel

Constantan

Blue/Red

0 to 400

Copper

Constantan

Yellow/Red

-270 to1372

Chromel

Alumel

Black/Red

-50 to 1768

Platinum-13%
rhodium

Platinum

Black/Red

-50 to 1768

Platinum-10%
rhodium

Platinum

Grey/Red

0 to 1700

Platinum-30%
rhodium

Platinum-6% rhodium

WhiteRed/Red

0 to 2320

Tungsten/5%
rhenium

Tungsten 26% rhenium

Chromel = Nickel-chromium
Alumel = Nickel-aluminum
Constantan = Copper-nickel
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Thermocouple Tables

Voltage to Temperature Conversion


Type T Thermocouple (Blue & Red) Reference Junction 0 C
C
0

0.000 0.039 0.078 0.117 0.156 0.195 0.234 0.273 0.312 0.352

10

0.391 0.431 0.470 0.510 0.549 0.589 0.629 0.669 0.709 0.749

20

0.790 0.830 0.870 0.911 0.951 0.992 1.033 1.074 1.114 1.155

30

1.196 1.238 1.279 1.320 1.362 1.403 1.445 1.486 1.528 1.570

40

1.612 1.654 1.696 1.738 1.780 1.823 1.865 1.908 1.950 1.993

1.445 mV equal to temperature ..

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Thermocouple

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Thermocouple

Thermocouples are self-powered and of simple and rugged (shock-resistant) construction.

They are also inexpensive (half the price of an RTD), come in a wide choice of physical
forms, and provide a wide temperature range. In addition, they can be calibrated to
generate a specific curve (for an extra cost) and are easy to interchange.

They provide a fast response and measurement at one specific point. The typical
response time of a bare T/C is from 0.2 to 12 seconds.

Whereas RTDs average the temperature over their element, T/Cs measure the
temperature at their tip only and are thus faster. However, T/Cs generate a nonlinear
output and a low voltage.

The accuracy of T/Cs varies with temperature. Therefore, plants must assess the T/C's
accuracy at the operating temperature to determine whether it is acceptable.

T/Cs require a reference junction, have low sensitivity, are limited in accuracy, and need
type matching extension wires.

In addition, they are subject to deterioration from adverse conditions, usage, and time;
are susceptible to stray electrical signals; and require amplifying electronics.

However, the units electronics can identify T/C failure as being either an upscale or
downscale indication.

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Resistence Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Pure metals will produce an increase in resistance with an increase in temperature.

In resistance temperature detectors (RTD), the electronics sense the change of


resistance of a resistor (on a Wheatstone bridge) as temperature changes and generate a
proportional output.

The most common RTD element is 100 at 0C platinum; nickel is generally the second
choice.

The RTD is an accurate sensor that theoretically could measure a temperature change of
0.00002F (0.00001C).

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Resistence Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

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Resistence Temperature Detectors (RTDs)


As a rough rule of thumb, RTDs are used where the temperature is less than 250F (120C), whereas T/Cs are
used where the temperature is greater than 930F (500C).
Since the accuracy of RTDs varies with temperature, the user must assess the processs operating temperature
and deemed whether an RTD is acceptable.
Of all temperature-measuring devices, RTDs are, at moderate temperatures, the most stable and the most
accurate. Their output is stronger than that of a T/C, they are less susceptible to electrical noise, and they
operate on a higher level of electrical signals. Moreover, they are more sensitive and more linear than a T/C
(output versus temperature), use copper extension wire (not special extension wire), require no reference
junction, and are easy to interchange.
However, RTDs are relatively expensive compared to thermocouples, have a slow response, and require a
current source.
Their resistance curves vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, and their accuracy and service life are limited
at high temperatures.

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Comparison B/w RTDs & Thermocouples

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Thermistors
Thermistor, a word formed by combining thermal with resistor, is
a temperature-sensitive resistor fabricated from semiconducting
materials.
The resistance of thermistors decreases proportionally with
increases in temperature.
The operating range can be -200C to + 1000C

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Thermistors
The thermistors can be in the shape of a rod, bead

or disc.

Manufactured from oxides of nickel, manganese,

iron, cobalt,
metals.

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magnesium,

titanium

and

other

Thermistors

The word that best describes the thermistors is

sensitive

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Thermistor Charts
Resistance to Temperature Conversion

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Thermistors
Advantages:

Small sizes and fast response

Low cost

Suitability for narrow spans

Disadvantages:

More susceptible to permanent de-calibration at high temperatures.

Use is limited to a few hundred degrees Celsius.

Respond quickly to temperature changes, thus, especially susceptible to self-heating


errors.

Very fragile

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Pyrometer
Pyrometry is based on the principle that all objects emit radiant energy in the
form of electromagnetic waves. Red hot means that the radiant energy is in
the visible light portion of the spectrum.
Pyrometers measure the temperature of an object by measuring the intensity of
the emitted radiation (visible or non-visible).
A black body is considered as the perfect emitter and is commonly used as a
standard when calibrating pyrometers.
The two most common pyrometric techniques are radiation and optical.

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Radiation Pyrometer

In radiation Pyrometry, the radiation from a hot surface is measured when it is focused on a T/C.

The measured temperature is directly proportional to the heat radiated and therefore its temperature (if the
emissivity is known).

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Optical Pyrometer
basic principle of using the human eye to match the brightness of
the hot object to the brightness of a calibrated lamp filament inside
the instrument
Compare incident radiation to internal filament radiation

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Pyrometer
Pyrometry is used for noncontact measurement where the point to be measured is out of reach (such as a
moving target or an inaccessible target).
It is also used to measure the average temperature of a very large target, or if the temperature is too high (such
as with molten metal).
Pyrometers may be portable, and they have a high response speed of a few milliseconds. For industrial-type
meters, a one- to two-second response time is common.
Pyrometers are relatively expensive.
In addition, errors can be introduced in pyrometers through condensation on the window or lens, smoke or
fumes in the atmosphere, gases such as products of combustion, or dirt on the optical system.
For fixed units, a special housing may be required to protect units that are subject to extremely high
surrounding temperatures (e.g., cast aluminum jackets to accommodate coolants). Special housings may also
be needed to meet production needs (e.g. water cleaning, sprays, etc.) or to protect units from cold winters
(where heat tracing may be required).
Pyrometers may require the use of focusing devices, such as sighting telescopes, alignment tubes, and aiming
flanges.
They may also require the use of safety shutters to safeguard the lenses and motorized bases to redirect the
instruments position.

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