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Drill: Calculate the

pH of 0.10 M H2Z in
0.50 M KHZ.
-5
Ka1 = 2.0 x 10
-9
Ka2 = 5.0 x 10

Salt or
Hydrolysis
Reactions

Hydrolysis
Any reaction in which water is
decomposed with all or part
of its decomposition portions
combining with the products

Hydrolysis
Water is added to
decompose
something

Hydrolysis
MX + HOH
HX + MOH

Salts

Salts

Ionic compounds
that dissolve ~
100 % in water

Salts of Acids
Salts of acids are
negative
(A )

Salts of Bases
Salts of bases are
Positive
+
+
(M or B )

Salt Solutions
When salts dissolve,
their ions can
recombine with water

Salt Solutions
The salts of weak acids
can recombine with
water producing basic
solutions

Salt Solutions
The salts of weak
bases can recombine
with water producing
acidic solutions

Salt Solutions
A + H 2O

HA + OH

B + H2O

H + BOH

Drill: Calculate the


salt/acid ratio of a
solution of benzoic acid
& sodium benzoate at a
pH of 5.00.
-5
Ka HBz = 6.4 x 10

Salt or
Hydrolysis
Problems

Salt Problem
Calculate the pH of
a 0.20 M solution
of NaBz
-5
Ka HBz = 6.4 x 10

Drill: Calculate the


pH of a solution of
0.10 M NH3 in 0.20
NH4Cl.
Kb NH3 = 1.8 x 10

-5

Salt or
Hydrolysis
Problems

Salt Problem
Calculate the pH of
a 0.20 M solution
of KNO2
Ka HNO2 = 7.1 x 10

-4

Salt Problem
Calculate the pH of a
0.10 M solution of
R-NH3Cl
Kb R-NH = 2.5 x 10

-5

Calculate the pH of
a 0.18 M solution
of KC2H3O2
Ka = 1.8 x 10

-5

Drill: Calculate the salt


to acid ratio required to
make a buffer solution
with a pH of 4.495
using benzoic acid.
-5
Ka HBz = 6.4 x 10

Salt Applications
Salts of strong acids
& weak bases make
acidic solutions

Salt Applications
Salts of strong bases
& weak acids make
basic solutions

Salt Applications
Salts of strong acids
& strong bases make
neutral solutions

Predict Relative pH
NaAc

MnCl2

KNO3

NH4Br

KHSO4

NH4Ac

Predict Relative pH
KAc
KClO2
K2SO4

NaCl
NH4Cl
NaI

Anhydrides

Compounds without
water; that when
added to water, form
other compounds

Acid Anhydrides
Non-metal oxides
that form acids when
added to water

Basic Anhydrides
Metal oxides that
form bases when
added to water

Predict Relative pH
SO2
Na2O
NO2

CO2

CaO

Al2O3

Calculate the pH of
a 0.16 M solution
of KC7H5O2
Ka = 6.4 x 10

-5

Calculate the pH
of a solution of
0.0030 M KQ.
Ka HQ = 3.0 x 10-5

Drill: Calculate the


pH of a 0.72 M
NH4NO3 solution.
-5
Kb NH3 = 1.8 x 10

Are there any


questions on
previous
material?

A/B eq, Buffer


& Salt
Hydrolysis
Problem

Calculate [H3PO4], [H2PO4 ],


-2
-3
+
+
[HPO4 ], [PO4 ], [K ], [H ],
& pH of 1.0 M KH2PO4 in
0.50 M K2HPO4.
-3
Ka1 = 7.5 x 10
-8
Ka2 = 6.2 x 10
-13
Ka3 = 4.2 x 10
-1

You need to make a buffer


solution with its greatest
buffering capacity at pH ~
5.4. In general terms,
describe what acid or base
you would chose, & how
you would make the buffer.

11.2 g of KOH was added


to 2.0 L of 0.075 M
H2CO3. Calculate the
molarity of all ions
present in the solution.
-7
Ka1 = 4.4 x 10
-11
Ka2 = 4.8 x 10

Drill: Calculate
the pH of
0.10 M HF.
-4
Ka HF = 6.5 x 10

Test
Review

Expect a straight
acid/base
problem like the
drill

Calculate the pH
of 0.10 M HF in
0.20 M KF.
-4
Ka HF = 6.5 x 10

Calculate the pH
of 0.10 M KF.
-4
Ka HF = 6.5 x 10

Predict Relative pH
K2O

MgO

ClO2

(NH4)2O

SO3

N2O3

Predict Relative pH
KAc
KClO2
K2SO4

NaCl
NH4Cl
NaI

Calculate the pH
of 5.0 M KCN.
-10
KaHCN= 5.0 x 10

Calculate pH of:
0.20 M MOH in
0.50 M MCl
-5
Kb = 5.0 x 10

Calculate pH of:
0.20 M MCl
-5
Kb = 5.0 x 10

Drill: Calculate
the pH of
0.20 M KQ.
-5
Ka HQ = 8.0 x 10

Calculate pH of:
0.20 M HNO2
Ka = 2.0 x 10

-4

Calculate pH of:
3.0 M HZ in
2.0 M KZ
Ka HZ = 3.0 x 10

-5

Calculate pH of:
0.20 M KR
-5
Ka HR = 2.0 x 10

Calculate pH of:
2.0 M HQ
Ka = 2.0 x 10

-6

Calculate pH of:
0.60 M HZ in
0.90 M KZ
Ka HZ = 3.0 x 10

-5

Calculate pH of:
0.20 M KQ
-7
Ka HQ = 2.0 x 10

1.5 L of 0.25 M Ba(OH)2 was


added to 1.0 L of 0.60 M
H2SO3. Calculate [H2SO3],
-2
+
[HSO3 ], [SO3 ], [H ], [OH ],
& pH of the solution.
-2
Ka1 = 1.7 x 10
-8
Ka2 = 6.0 x 10

Review of Acid/Base
descriptions and
Acid/Base, Buffer, &
Salt Equilibria

Arhenius, BronstedLowry, & Lewis


Acids & Bases

Strong Acids
Strong Bases

Acid rxns
Base rxns

A/B Equilibrium
Constants
KW, KA, KB, & pH

Calculate pH of:
0.025 M HNO3
0.020 M KOH

150 mL of 0.10 M KOH was


added to 100.0 mL of 0.10 M
H2CO3. Calculate [H2CO3],
-2
+
[HCO3 ], [CO3 ], [H ], [OH ],
& pH of the solution.
-7
Ka1 = 4.4 x 10
-11
Ka2 = 4.7 x 10

Calculate [H3A], [H2A ],


-2
-3
+
+
[HA ], [A ], [K ], [H ],
[OH ], & pH of
2.0 M KH2A.
-3
Ka1 = 4.0 x 10
-8
Ka2 = 5.0 x 10
-13
Ka3 = 2.5 x 10
-1

The take-home
portion of the
test is due by
8:15 tomorrow