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Problems Ch 01 and Ch 02:

Intorduction and Properties of Fluids


Dr. SALVADOR VARGAS DAZ
Semestre 2015-1

Problem 01. A liquid at 20 oC has a


relative density of 0.80 and kinematic
viscosity 2.3 centistoke. Determine its
(i) unit weight and (ii) dynamic visosity
in Pas.

Problem 02. The space between two


parallel plates kept 3 mm apart is fill
with oil of dynamic viscosity 0.2 Pas.
What is the shear stress on the lower
fixed plate, if the upper one is move
with a velocity of 1.50 m/s?

Problem 03. The velocity distribution in


a viscous flow over a plate is given by
for y
where u = velocity in m/s at a point
distance y from the plate . If the
dynamic viscosity is 15. Pas determine
the shear stress at y = 0.0 and y = 2.0
m.

Problem 04. The velocity distribution


near a solid wall in a section in a
laminar flow is given by

For y 0.10 m. Compute the shear


stress at a section at (i) y = 0.0, (ii) y
= 0.5 m and (iii) y = 0.10 m. The
dynamic viscosity of the fluid is 5
poise.

Problem 05. A cylindrical shaft of 90


mm diameter rotates about a vertical
axis inside a fixed cylindrical tube of
length 50 cm and 95 mm internal
diameter. If the space between the
tube and the shaft is filled by a
lubricant of dynamic viscosity 2.0
poise, determine the power required to
overcome viscous resistence when the
shaft is rotated at a speed of 240 rpm.

Problem 06. A 90 N rectangular solid


block slides down a 30o inclined plane.
The plane is lubricated by a 3 mm thick
film of oil of relative density 0.90 and
dynamic viscosity 8.0 poise. If the
contact area is 0.3 m2, estimate the
velocity of the block.

Problem 07. A piston of 7.95 cm


diameter and 30 cm long works in a
cylinder of 8.0 cm diameter. The
annular space of the piston is filled
with an oil of viscosity 2 poise. If an
axial load of 10 N is applied to the
piston, calculate the speed of the
movement of the piston.

Problem 08. The viscosity of some fluids, called


magnetorheological (MR) fluids, changes when a
magnetic field is applied. Such fluids involve micron-sized
magnetizable particles suspended in an appropriate
carrier liquid, and are suitable for use in controllable
hydraulic clutches. The MR fluids can have much higher
viscosities than the ER fluids, and they often exhibit
shear-thinning behavior in which the viscosity of the fluid
decreases as the applied shear force increases. This
behavior is also known as pseudoplastic behavior, and
can be successfully represented by HerschelBulkley
constitutive model expressed as = y + K(du/dy)m. Here
is the shear stress applied, y is the yield stress, K is the
consistency index, and m is the power index. For a
HerschelBulkley fluid with y = 900 Pa, K = 58 Pa-sm, and
m = 0.82, (a) find a relationship for the torque
transmitted by an MR clutch for N plates attached to the
input shaft when the input shaft is rotating at an angular

Problem 09. A velocity distribution in a


2-in.- diameter pipe is measured to be
, ft/sec.
where r0 is the radius of the pipe.
Calculate the shear stress at the wall if
water at 20C is flowing.

Problem 09. What is the volume


change of 2 m3 of water at 20C due to
an applied pressure of 10 MPa? K = 2.2
x 109 Pa.

Problem 10. What is change in


pressure is required to compress a fluid
under isothermal conditions to quarter
of its original volume?

Problem 11. In diesel engines diesel


fuel is injected directly into the engine
cylinder during the compression stroke
where the average air pressure could
reach 8000 kPa. Assuming that liquid
fuel droplets are formed as the fuel
flows from the injector, determine the
interior pressure in a 5-micro-metre
diameter spherical droplet.The surface
tension for diesel fuel in air is 0.025
N/m.

Problem 12. The density of seawater at


a free surface where the pressure is 98
kPa is approximately 1030 kg/m3.
Taking the bulk modulus of elasticity of
seawater to be 2.34x109 N/m2 and
expressing variation of pressure with
depth z as dP = g dz, find as a
function of depth (z) and determine
the density and pressure at a depth of
2500 m. Disregard the effect of
temperature.

Problem 13. Under some conditions, it


is possible, due to surface tension
forces that some objects can float at
the surface. For example we can
consider a small bar with specific
weight of 490 lbf/ft3, this bar is put on
the water surface ( = 5.03 x 10-3 lbf/ft)
Find the maximum diameter to keep
the bar on the surface, due to surface
tension.

Problem 14. Calculate the capillary rise


of water in a pair of the glass plates
separated by 2 mm if the plates are
inclined at 75o from the vertical.