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Vacuum System Design Considerations

Materials
Plumbing
Pumping
Throughput

Ultimate pressure
Dynamic equilibrium
Pumping speed
Leaks

Leaks
Real
Holes in the system!

Virtual
Surface adsorption
Outgassing
Hubers rule
Water desorbs very slowly from all surfaces
Always backfill your vacuum system with dry
nitrogen

Minimize surface area

Ultimate vacuum/limiting pressure


System bakeout
P(T) = P0 exp(-Hv/R(1/T 1/T0))
Applies to evaporation
Applies equally well to desorption
Replace Hv with some desorption energy

Vacuum System Bakeout


Heating tape
Copper

Glass

Brass
Aluminum

Materials for vacuum systems


1. What is its vapor pressure?
What is its specific surface area?
Typical materials of choice
Glass
Hardnon-porous and structurally rigid
Smoothminimum specific surface area
Bakeable
Pyrex or Kimax (70% SiO2) good to 550 C
Quartz or Vycor (96% SiO2) good to 1100 C

Chemically inert

Materials for Vacuum Applications


Ceramics
Electrical insulators
Thermal insulators
Bakeable to very high temperatures
Can be machinable
Lava
Must be fired after machining
Expands 2% on firing

Macor

Materials for Vacuum Applications


Stainless steel
304 and 316 are ideal
The chromium in the steel combines with
oxygen in the atmosphere to form a thin,
invisible layer of chrome-containing oxide,
called the passive film. [Ditto for bumpers!]
The sizes of chromium atoms and their oxides
are similar, so they pack neatly together on
the surface of the metal, forming a stable
layer only a few atoms thick.
Non-porous, impervious to infiltration
Bakeable to high temperature

Materials for Vacuum Applications


Aluminum
Much easier to machine than stainless
Also forms impervious oxide
Strength-to-weight ratio is greater than steel
Outgassing rate is 5-10X that of stainless

Materials for Vacuum Applications


Brass and copper
Whats brass?
Easily machined
Easily joined with soft or silver solder
Fittings available from commercial plumbing
suppliers
Volatile zinc above 200 C

Materials for Vacuum Applications


Plastics
Easily formed
Not bakeable to very high temperature
Nylon and Delrin are most stable
Outgas water and air

Teflon
Bakes over 200 C
Soft; poor mechanical strength

Polyimide (Kapton)
Very low vapor pressure
Used for tape!

O-ring
seals

Groove design criteria


http://www.oringsusa.com/html/gland_design.html

Cross Section

Width

Depth

(mm)

(W)

(L)

1.3

0.8

1.5

1.8

1.1

2.6

1.5

2.5

3.2

1.9

3.9

2.3

3.5

4.5

2.7

5.2

3.15

4.5

5.8

3.6

5.5

4.3

5.5

4.7

6.5

6.5

5.5

7.5

5.7

7.5

6.6

8.5

6.8

8.5

7.23

9.5

7.65

9.5

10

8.08

10

10.5

8.5

Vacuum Valves
Glass
Stopcocks
Ace valves
Neither is bakeable to very high temperature

Vacuum Valves: Glass Stopcock


Mating ground glass surfaces
Must be [heavily] greased
Outlet

Inlet

Through hole aligns


with inlet (open) or
doesnt (closed)

Vacuum Valves: Ace Thred


Thread for stem drive

Stem seal O-rings


Valve-sealing
O-ring

Outlet

Inlet

Tapered Glass Seat

Vacuum Valves: Diaphragm valve

Valve seat
Diaphragm!

Vacuum Valves: Bellows Valve


Valve seal
O-ring

Valve
seat
Stem seal
O-ring

Bellows
Actuator knob

Vacuum Valves: Gate Valve


Sealing plate, fully retractable

Manual actuator
Minimal reduction in throughput!

Joinery: copper conflats


Knife edges

Copper gaskets (conflats)

Traps
P(T) = P0 exp(-Hv/R(1/T 1/T0))
At 275 K, pump oil has very low vapor
pressure
Hence the water baffle

At 77 K, water and many other contaminants


have very low vapor pressure.
Hence the LN2 trap.

Diff pump trap

Glass in-line trap and dewar