Sie sind auf Seite 1von 32

Designing a Gas

Detection System

Honeywell.com

Why Gas Detection?

Safeguard Life and Property.


Provide Early Warning of Hazardous Conditions.
Provide Opportunity for Evacuation and Notification from Re-entry
Provide Time for Intervention and Correction.

Trigger Facility Protection Systems.

Ventilation, Water Mist, Fire Suppression.

Satisfy Local Fire Code and Provide Insurability.


Address Real and Perceived Safety Concerns.
Note: Gas Detection is Recommended Practice, Required by Code,
or Required by Law.

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Points to Consider

Understand the application


Identify potential danger points
Establish design goals
Determine gas characteristics
Profile the plant and potential release scenarios
Other elements in selecting gas detection systems
Actual placement of detection
Indoors
Outdoors

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Understand The Application


The gases to be monitored

Toxic (STEL, TLV, TWA)


Combustible (LEL, UEL)
Exposure limits
Density and Other Gas Properties

Local and federal regulations


Uniform Fire Code
Code of Federal Regulations
Local Fire Marshal

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Identify Potential Danger Points


Release Points sensors should be placed as close as possible to potential
leak sources.

Seals and flanges, fittings and welds


Expansion joints and gaskets
Engine combustion
Storage, loading and unloading areas
Runoff areas
Decomposing materials

Receptor Points a gas detection notification system should protect any


person, property or equipment that may come in contact with harmful gases.

Wind direction
Ventilation systems
Run off areas
Confined spaces
Communities and facilities

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Establish Design Goals


Initiate a response based on an early warning of a potential problem.
Notification or annunciation method of warning
Ventilation control
Process shutdown
Evacuation and emergency response
Amount of confinement - over pressurization and accumulation
Run-up distance speed of flame increases with distance
Amount of congestion or obstacles
Fuel quantity and mixing
Margin of safety distance between leak source and receptors
Plant safety process
Insurance requirements

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Determine Gas Characteristics


LEL, UEL, Toxicity
Vapor density
Density differences with temperature
Cryogenic liquids, flammable liquids
Low density gases displacing ambient density gases (helium vs. oxygen)
Gases under pressure will condense in areas where vented first
Gases changing composition dry ice
Toxicity vs. flammability (MTBE 40 PPM 1.6% LEL)
Hydrolyzed (BF3, F2)
Pyrolyzed (NF3)
Flash point - the lowest temperature at which a liquid can form an ignitable mixture in
air near the surface of the liquid. The lower the flash point, the easier it is to ignite the
material.
Rate of evaporation and dispersion characteristics
Gas mixing (fuel, oxygen, ignition source)
Oxygen enriched environments

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Gas Hazards
There are three main types of gas hazard
1.

Flammable
Risk of fire and or explosion,
e.g. Methane, Butane, Propane

2.

Toxic
Risk of poisoning,
e.g. Carbon Monoxide, Hydrogen Sulfide, Chlorine

3.

Asphyxiant
Risk of suffocation,
e.g. Oxygen deficiency, Nitrogen, Carbon Dioxide

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Flammable Risk

Fire Triangle

at
he

ox
yg
en

Three factors are always needed to cause


combustion:

FIRE

1. A source of ignition
2. Oxygen
3. Fuel in the form of a gas
or vapour

fuel
9

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Flammable Risk
The operation of a cars choke
illustrates an important part of
flammable gas hazards
All flammable gases are only
ignitable over their flammable range
Flammable gases tend to be
measured in percentage of their
explosive Limit (%LEL)

100% v/v gas


0% v/v air

too rich

flammable
range

U.E.L. (upper
explosive limit)
L.E.L. (lower
explosive limit)

too lean
0% v/v gas
100% v/v air
10

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Toxic Risk
Some gases are poisonous and
can be dangerous to life at very
low concentrations.
Some toxic gases have strong
smells like the distinctive rotten
eggs smell of H2S
Others are completely odourless
like Carbon Monoxide

11

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Toxic Risk
The measurement most often used
for the concentration of toxic gases
is parts per million (ppm).
For example 1ppm would be
equivalent to a room filled with a
total of 1 million balls and 1 of those
balls being red. The red ball would
represent 1ppm.

1 million balls

1 red ball

12

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Profile the Plant and Potential Release Scenarios

Gas sensors should be placed to ensure that a quantity of gas will past by them
in all normal release scenarios.

13

Identify physical features of plant


Identify ventilation tracks
Identify escape routes
Protect entrances to areas
Mark escape routes
Identify wind directions

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Other Elements

Accessibility for calibration and maintenance


Wiring and installation
Environmental conditions
EMI and RFI
Alarm levels
Exposure limits
Oxygen levels some toxic gas electrochemical sensors require a
minimum oxygen level to function. All catalytic bead combustible
detectors require oxygen to work.
Be aware of poisoning and inhibiting factors

14

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Interior Detector Placement Guidelines


Operate Detectors Within their Temperature Limits. Use Sample Draw or Duct
Mount Configurations When Needed
Water, Moisture, Dust and Dirt May Affect Performance. Minimize Exposure and
Protect From Adverse Conditions
Locate Detectors With Respect to Grade, Floor, or Operating Level - According to
Building Design, HVAC System, Characteristics of Potential Leak
When Monitoring Specific Equipment, Place Detectors Near (12 Inches) Pump,
Seal, Tank, Valve, etc.
Sensitivity of Detector Depends on Proximity to Leak. Adjust Alarms if Earlier
Annunciation is Required
Mount Detectors Securely, Independent of Vibration, With Weather Shield Facing
Downward
Conduct Smoke Trace Behavior Studies If in Doubt

15

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Detector Spacing Indoors


There are Few Published Guidelines and No Standards Indicating Area or
Volume Effectively Protected By a Diffusion Sensor. There is a Corollary in
Fire Protection
UL Suggests a 900 Ft2 Ceiling Space Per Smoke Detector, Which is a 30 Ft.
Square or 15 Ft. Radius
Using This Base Guideline, the Total Number of Detectors Must be Based on
Gas Dispersion Characteristics and Air Movement
Potential Leak Source Locations and Characteristics,
Sources of Ignition Locations
Interior Space Division by Walls or Barriers
Economics of the Procurement

16

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Detector Spacing Indoors, Contd.


UL Suggests a 900 Ft2 Ceiling Space Per Smoke Detector

15 Feet

15 Feet

Detector

Detector

30 Feet

30 Feet
References
NFPA 72 E, Standard On Automatic Fire Detectors
Schaeffer, M.J., The Use of Combustible Detectors in Protecting Facilities from
Flammable Hazards, ISA Transactions, Volume 20, No. 2, Instrument Society
of America 1981
17

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Indoors
40 feet

Door
Ceiling
Ventilation

20 ft

Natural Gas

S
T
O
R
A
G
E

Lab Bench
Cl2

Door
LN2
Window

18

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Outdoor Detector Location Guidelines


Use same considerations outdoors as indoors.
Consider Angle and Direction of Prevailing Wind
The Orientation of Structures and Surrounding Terrain with Regard to
Shielding Affects
The Proximity of Large Quantities of Toxics to Personnel and Equipment,
Which May Require Added Detectors to Isolate the Two

19

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Outdoor Detector Location Guidelines

Possible Entrapment of Leaking Gases and


Vapors Within Columns, Low Lying Areas or
Confined Spaces
Sources of Ignition and Processes With
Fugitive Leak Potential Are Considered for
Detector Placement

20

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Outdoor Detector Location, Contd.


Heavier Than Air Gases or Vapors: Vapor Density >1
The Preferred Location for Detectors is ~18 Inches Above Grade. For
Liquid Spills, As Close to the Vapor/Liquid Interface as Possible, and Still
Allow for Detector Calibration

Lighter Than Air Gases and Vapors: Vapor Density <1


The Preferred Location for Detectors is About 6 to 8 Feet Above Grade or
Operating Level, With Special Attention Being Paid to Air Currents,
Structures, Roofed Areas, Etc.

21

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Detector Spacing Outdoors


Few Guidelines Exist for Detector Placement
An Increased Grid Density is Used Outdoor Presumably
Because of the Greater Potential for Leak Dilution
Thus, More Detectors Are Required, and Potential Leaks Are
Encircled, to Account for Wind Shifts

22

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Detector Spacing Outdoors

Repeat Outdoor Grid Pattern as


Conditions Warrant. Focus on Potential
Leak Sources for Additional Detectors
if Required
Detector

10-15 Feet

Detector

10-15 Feet

20-30 Feet

20-30 Feet

23

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

General Location Considerations


Toxic Gases and Vapors:
Identify Potential Leak Sources, Work Areas, and Exit Points. Understand Where
People are Performing Their Work and Place Detectors Between Probable Release
Points and the Work Area

24

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

General Location Considerations


Allow Access for Sensor Calibration and Replacement.
Sensors Have a Finite Life - Calibrate and Maintain Regularly!

Always Locate Detectors Using Local Conditions Knowledge,


and Lighter or Heavier Than Air Principles

25

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

General Location Considerations


Locate Detectors Within Their Temperature Rating
Avoid Exposure to Sources of High Radiant Heat
Keep Detectors Away From Moisture and Chemicals
Avoid Vibration and Mechanical Shock Hazards
Observe Recommended Wiring and Tagging Practices
Use Shielded Cable Whenever Possible and Follow Correct Grounding
Practices (NFPA 70)
Observe Proper Detector Mounting Orientation

26

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Detector Location and Area Coverage Map


IMPORTANT
Detectors should be located close to any potential leak
source and between leak source and any potential source of
ignition existing at the monitored site.

XNX-Optima

FILL LINE

DETECTOR LOCATED ON
TOP OF TANK NEAR VALVE
OR FLANGE ON FILL LINE
FILL LINE

TANK SUPPORT LEGS


OUT FLOW

SIDE VIEW OF STORAGE TANK


27

TOP VIEW OF STORAGE TANK

DETECTORS SHOULD BE LOCATED BELOW TOP OF DYKE WALL


FOR VAPORS THAT ARE HEAVIER THAN AIR.
Sensor should be approx 12-18 in above grade. These vapor densities
are greater than air.
Honeywell Proprietary

TOP VIEW OF STORAGE TANK

Honeywell.com

Detector Location and Area Coverage Map


IMPORTANT
Detectors should be located close to any potential leak
source and between leak source and any potential source of
ignition existing at the monitored site.

XNX-Optima

FILL LINE

DETECTOR LOCATED ON
TOP OF TANK NEAR VALVE
OR FLANGE ON FILL LINE
FILL LINE

TANK SUPPORT LEGS


OUT FLOW

SIDE VIEW OF STORAGE TANK


28

DETECTORS SHOULD BE LOCATED BELOW TOP OF DYKE WALL


FOR VAPORS THAT ARE HEAVIER THAN AIR.
Sensor should be approx 12-18 in above grade. These vapor densities
are greater than air.
Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Detector Location and Area Coverage Map


IMPORTANT: This is intended as a General Application Note and NOT as the sole source of
information in determining quantity and location for detector placement. Consult additional
resources when developing a monitoring system. Additional information is available for developing
Combustible Gas Detection systems, such as: The National Fire Protection Association, NFPA 52
and the Instrument Society of America, ISA-RP12.13-Part II-1987. Services are also available from
Professional Safety Engineering Firms and should be utilized whenever necessary

TOP VIEW OF THREE AND TWO TANK AREA


SIDE VIEW OF TANK

8
4

DETECTORS SHOULD BE
LOCATED BELOW TOP OF
DYKE WALL FOR VAPORS
THAT ARE HEAVIER THAN AIR.
Sensor should be approx 12-18 in.
above grade..

7
IMPORTANT
Detectors should be located close to
any potential leak source and between
leak source and any potential source of
ignition existing at the monitored site.

29

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Detector Location and Area Coverage Map


TOP VIEW OF UNLOADING FACILITY

R.R. SPUR NO. 13

R.R. SPUR NO. 12


IMPORTANT
Detectors should be located close to any potential leak source and between
leak source and any potential source of ignition existing at the monitored
site.

NOTE: IF PIPING
FUNCTIONS OR VALVES ARE
ABOVE THE TANK CAR A
DETECTOR MAY BE
MOUNTED PART WAY DOWN
THE WALL TO DETECT
FALLING VAPORS FROM A
LEAK SOURCE

NOTE: DETECTORS SHOULD


BE LOCATED LOW, CLOSE TO
GRADE FOR VAPORS THAT
ARE HEAVIER THAN AIR.
NOTE: Sensor should be approx.
12-18 in. above grade. These vapor
densities are heavier than air.

SIDE VIEW OF UNLOADING FACILITY


30

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

Publications to Reference
Chemical Weekly, 2008, Key Considerations when Designing a Gas Detection System
ISA Recommended Practices
ACGIH: Annual TLV and BEI Guide
1330 Kemper Meadow Drive, Cincinnati OH 45240-1634
NFPA/ANSI Guides, Standards and Practices
1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy MA 02269-9101
NIOSH: Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
Available by FAX Request to (513) 533-8573
OSHA, CFR 29, Section 1910.1000, Subpart ZWorking in Confined Spaces.
NIOSH1 Publication 80-106
A Guide to Safety in Confined Spaces.
NIOSH Publication 87-113
ALERT: Request for Assistance in Preventing Occupational Fatalities in Confined Spaces.
NIOSH Publication 86-110

31

Honeywell Proprietary

Honeywell.com

The End
Questions?

32

Honeywell Proprietary