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Rudolf Virchow

(18211902)

Scientist
Introduced concept of cellular pathology
Considered father of modern cellular
pathology

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Lipofusion

Brown pigment composed of oxidized lipids


Also known as brown fat of aging
Undigested complex lipids
Accumulates in aging tissues

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Interaction of Cells with Other Cells

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Equilibrium of Cell

Steady state maintained between cell & its


surrounding
Equilibrium = homeostasis
External stimuli can alter homeostasis
Imbalance in homeostasis can cause:

Cell injury
Cell death

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Steady State (Homeostasis)

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Cell Injury

Reversible cell injury

Cellular swelling

Irreversible cell injury

Cell death

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Reversible Cell Injury

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Cellular Swelling

Normal microvilli
Swollen microvilli
Invagination of cell
membrane
Swollen mitochondria,
dilated RER
Loss of intracellular
contact

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Cell Membrane Permeability


Changes

Regulates flow of
sodium (Na) &
potassium (K) across
membrane
Na+/K+ ATPase pump
requires energy
produced by
mitochondria

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Nuclear Changes in
Irreversible Cell Injury

Pyknosis:
condensation
Karyorrhexis:
fragmentation
Karyolysis:
dissolution of
nuclear structure as
result of enzymatic
digestion
Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Causes of Cell Injury

Hypoxia
Anoxia
Microbes
Inflammation
Immune reactions
Genetic & metabolic disorders

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Major Causes of Hypoxia/Anoxia

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Oxygen Radicals

Hydrogen peroxide
Superoxide
Hydroxyl radical

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Postperfusion Injury

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Toxic Cell Injury

Direct toxin: heavy metals (i.e., mercury)


disrupt S-S bonds
Indirect toxin: carbon tetrachloride
metabolized in liver to form carbon trichloride,
which is more toxic

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Microbial Pathogens

Bacteria: produce toxins


Viruses: kill cells from within

Direct
Indirect

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Viral Cell Injury

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Cell Adaptations

Occur as result of prolonged exposure to


adverse or exaggerated normal stimuli
Main forms of adaptation:

Atrophy
Hypertrophy
Hyperplasia
Metaplasia
Intracellular accumulation

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Cellular Adaptations

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Atrophy

Decrease in size of cell, tissue, organ, or


entire body:

Physiologic & predictable: atrophy caused by


aging
Pathologic: lack of nutrition, chronic ischemia,
denervation, inactivity

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Atrophy of Brain
G = gyri, S = sulci

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Hypertrophy

Hypertrophy: enlarged cells

Hypertrophy of heart in hypertension


Hypertrophy of skeletal muscles in bodybuilders
Hypertrophy often combined with hyperplasia

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Hypertrophy of Left Ventricle

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Hyperplasia

Increased number of cells in tissue or organ

Endometrial hyperplasia caused by estrogen


Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in elderly men
Callus (corn) on hand (in some occupations) or on
heels (high-heeled shoes, tight shoes)
Hyperplastic polyps of intestine

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Intracellular Accumulations

Exogenous materials

Coal particles (anthracosis)

Endogenous metabolites

Hemosiderin
Lipids

Copyright 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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