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- The Strength of

Acids and Alkalis -

Our Goals for today


To state the uses of pH scale
To relate pH value with acidic or
alkaline properties of a substances
To relate the concentration of
hydrogen and hydroxide ions with pH
values
To relate strong or weak acids/alkalis
with the degree of ionisation
To conceptualise qualitatively strong
and weak acids/alkalis.

What is the pH scale?


The pH
scale
measures
how
acidic or

basic a
solution is.

The pH scale
The pH scale is the
concentration of hydrogen
ions in a given substance.

pH log H

Identifying Acids and Bases


Acids have a pH from 0-7
Lower pH value indicates a
stronger acid.
The lower the pH value, the
higher concentration of H
ions

Cont.
Bases have a pH from 7-14
Higher pH value indicates a
stronger base.
The higher the pH value, the
higher the concentration of
OH ions.

Did we Miss
something??
What happens when the pH of
a substance is 7?
Ans: A pH level of 7 indicates
a Neutral Substance i.e:
Water!

Apparatus to measure pH
value
pH meter
pH paper
Universal Indicator

pH METERS

Universal Indicators
Colors
Universal Indicator is a mixture of
different indicators which covers the full
range of pH values

How to measure the pH


value?
take measurements and
record the results

[ H + ] = 10
For bases
[ H +] = 3
For acids

WHEN THE
CONCENTRATION OF
HYDROGEN IONS
[H+] IN SOLUTION
INCREASE
SO THE pH VALUES
ARE
LOWER

WHEN THE
CONCENTRATION
OF HYDROXIDE
IONS [OH+] IN
SOLUTION
INCREASE
SO THE pH VALUES
ARE

Concentration of acids and bases


with pH values

Strong and Weak Acids


Depends on degree of ionisation :
Complete dissociation/ ionization in
water produces high concentration of
H ions
Partial dissociation / ionisation in water
produces low concentration of H ions
HA (aq)

H+ (aq) (high) + A-(aq)


HA (aq)

H+ (aq) () + A-(aq)

Diagram of strong acid


dissociation
Before dissociation

H A
A
H

HA
Example ?

After dissociation

H+
H2 O

H+

(aq)

A-

A-

H+

(aq)

AH

H+
A-

+ A-(aq)
Back

Diagram of weak acid


dissociation
Before dissociation

H A

H A
A

HA
Example ?

After dissociation

H+

H2 O

AH+
A-

(aq)

H+
A-

H+

(aq)

A-

H+

+ A-(aq)
Back

Strong acids definition?


Weak acids definition?

Diagram of strong alkali


dissociation
Before dissociation

After dissociation

OH
OH

B OH

H2 O

OH-

B+
OH-

OH

BOH (aq)

B+

B+
OH-

B+

OH-

B+ (aq) + OH-(aq)
Back

Diagram of weak alkali


dissociation
Before dissociation

OH
OH

B OH

After dissociation

B+ OH

H2 O

OH+
OH- B OH B+

OH

BOH

(aq)

B+

B+

(aq)

+ OH-(aq)
Back

Definition of strong alkali?


Definition of weak alkali?
-must consist of:
1)Degree of ionisation
2)Concentration of OH ions
3)pH value