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Module 5 - 1

Module 5

Documents Governing
Welding Inspection and
Qualification
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Document Types
Purchase orders
Contract documents
Codes
Standards
Specifications
Recommended Practices
Drawings

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Drawings
Dimensions in U.S. Customary or S.I.
When both are used, second system is
usually shown after the first in ( )
Tolerances must be stated as a :
+ or -, maximum, minimum, or
a range
All drawing notes must be reviewed
List of materials usually given

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Example of Fabrication
Drawing

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Dimensions

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Tolerances

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Notes

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Welding Details
Location
Size
Length
Joint configurations
Material call-outs
NDE requirements
Processing requirements

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Hold Points
Specific prearranged steps
Inspection required
Acceptance required
Fabrication continued

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Inspection Information
Visual or other NDE
Test method
Test procedure
Location for testing
Extent of testing
Acceptance/rejection criteria
Personnel qualifications

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Code
A body of laws, as of a nation,
city, etc., arranged systematically
for easy reference

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Types of Codes
Building codes
Electrical codes
Plumbing codes
Fabrication codes

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Codes:
Have legal status
Use Shall and Will
Mandatory
Methods to determine compliance

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Code Producers
AWS
ASME
API
ABS
DOT
Others

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Standard
Something established for use as a
rule or basis of comparison in
measuring or judging capacity,
quantity, content, extent, value,
quality, etc.

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Welding Codes and


Standards

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ASME Code by Sections

I - Const - Power Boilers


II - Materials
Part A - Ferrous
Part B - Nonferrous
Part C - Filler Metals
Part D - Properties
III - General
Requirements
IV - Const - Heating
Boilers

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V - NDE
VI - Operations of Power B.
VII - Care of Power Boilers
VIII - Unfired Pres. Vessels
Divisions 1, 2, and 3
IX - Welding Qualifications
X - FRP Pressure Vessels
XI - Nuclear Inspections

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Specification
A detailed description of the parts
of a whole: statement or
enumeration of particulars as to
actual or required size, quality,
performance, terms, etc.

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AWS Filler
Metal
Specifications

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AWS Welding
Specifications

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Recommended
Practice

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Other Standards
Organizations

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ANSI
ASTM
ISO
IIW
NACE

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Control of Materials
The identification and traceability of
materials

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Material Test Report (MTR)


The starting point for material
control

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MTR

Review:
Product Form
Heat Number
Chemistry
Mech. Properties

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Material Control Systems


Should be simple
Contain checks and balances
Specify marking methods

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Material Control Methods


Segregation
Color coding
Alphanumeric
Bar coding
Tagging
Stamping

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Alloy Identification
Systems

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Industry associations
SAE
AISI
CDA
Castings
Tool steels

UNS
ASTM

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ASTM
STANDARDS

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ASTM A514
Standard specification for high yield
strength, quenched and tempered
alloy steel plate, suitable for
welding

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Typical ASTM Specification

Scope
Applicable
Documents
General Delivery
Requirements
Process
Heat Treatment
Chemical
Requirements

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Mechanical
Requirements
Hardness
Requirements
Test Specimens
Number of tests
Retest
Marking
Supplemental
Requirements

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AWS A5.1
Specification for covered carbon
steel arc welding electrodes

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Typical AWS Filler


Specification

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Required Tests,
Scope
Methods
General Requirements

Classification
Manufacturing,
Acceptance
Packaging,
Certification
Identification
Retests
Method of manufacture Details of Tests
Marking
Appendix
Packaging, Rounding-of

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Qualification

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Fabricators responsibility
Procedures
Welders
Welding operators
Tack welders

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Procedure Qualification
Determines compatibility of:
Base metal(s)
Filler metal(s)
Process(es)
Techniques

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Procedure Qualification
Three methods:
Prequalified procedures
Procedure qualification testing
Mock-ups

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Prequalified Procedures
Used by AWS D1.1 & D1.5
No need for testing
Saves time and money

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Procedure Qualification
Testing

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ASME, API, AWS, & most Codes &


Standards
Welding and brazing
Defines essential welding variables
Testing required

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Essential Welding
Variables

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Those variables, that if changed


beyond certain limits, require a new
procedure qualification

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ASME Qualification
Section IX
Welding procedure specification
(WPS)

Lists essential welding variables

Procedure qualification record


(PQR)
Notes actual test conditions

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Mock-ups
Used for special joint
configurations

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Required Specimens
Prior to qualifying a procedure:
Determine test specimen requirements for
selected Code
Make test weldment large enough to obtain
proper number and type of samples
Consider making it large enough for an
extra test specimen or two
Maintain test weldment and specimen
orientation per Code

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Procedure Qualification Steps 1 of 2


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Select welding variables


Check equipment and materials
Monitor fitup & welding document!
Identify test specimens
Test and evaluate specimens

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Procedure Qualification Steps 2 of 2


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Review results for compliance


Release approved procedure
Qualify other welders
Monitor production welding

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Welder Qualification
Determines if individual welders
have sufficient skill to produce
satisfactory welds using a qualified
procedure

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Welding Variables
Examples of essential variables in some
codes:
Welding position
Joint configuration
Electrode type and size
Base metal type, thickness
Welding techniques
Use of backing

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Type & Position Limitations


Depends on Code used
Refer to Code for test weldment
thickness requirements and
limitations on welder qualification
Use Module 5, Figure 5.19, as
example for review

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Weld Position Designation


Position Designations:
Different for Plate and Pipe
Different for Groove and Fillet
welds
Must know positions and
designations
See Module 5, Figures 5.20 - 5.23

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Thickness Range Qualified


Depends on Code used
Depends on test specimen
thickness
See Figure 5.24 for D1.1
requirements

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Backed and
Non-backed
Joint

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Fillet Weld Test Specimen

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6GR Test Weldment

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Electrode Classification
Groupings

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Group
AWS
Designation
Electrode Classification
F4
EXX15, EXX16, EXX18, EXX15-X,
EXX16-X EXX18-X
F3
EXX10, EXX11, EXX10-X, EXX11-X
F2

EXX12, EXX13, EXX14, EXX13-X

F1

EXX20, EXX24, EXX27, EXX28,


EXX20-X, EXX27-X

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Qualify vs Certify
Qualify - Welder has skill to weld
Certify - Documents support above

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Welding Inspection
Requires:

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Availability of documents
Knowledge of documents
Use of documents
Materials control
Qualifications

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Quality is:
...conformance to specifications.
so..
Know Your Specifications!

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