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MOSFET Operation

Dr. Arti Noor,


M. Tech Division, CDAC Noida.
Email : artinoor@cdacnoida.in

29-9-2009 BVDLecture-4
  MOSFET
• Now add source and drain to MOS capacitor. The new structure is called
MOS transistor.
• Two types of MOS transistors : NMOS and PMOS

• The distance between S and D is called channel length L and lateral extent
of channel is width W. Both W and L are very important parameters. The
channel is formed through applied gate voltage between S and D.

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 MOSFET Types

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N-Channel MOSFET Operation

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N-Channel MOSFET Operation

• When Vgs > Vto is applied on gate inversion layer is formed. Source and
drain are connected through a n-type channel.
• Gate Voltage is applied with respect to source then Vto is same as in case
of MOS Capacitor.
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Threshold Voltage in MOSFET Case

QBoQox QB −QBo
Vt = QGC − 2φ F − − −
Cox Cox Cox

QB −QBo
= Vto −
Cox

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Threshold Voltage in MOSFET Case

QB − QB o
Co x = −
2 q⋅ N A⋅ε si
Co x • ( − 2 φ F + VS B − − 2φ F )

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N-Channel MOSFET Operation : I-V Curve (1)
NMOS in Linear Region :
• if small drain voltage is applied, drain current flows through the conducting
channel.
• As drain voltage increases, drain current also increases linearly with
voltage. The channel region acts as voltage controlled resistor.
• This operation mode is called linear mode.

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N-Channel MOSFET Operation : I-V Curve (2)
NMOS in saturation Region :
• As drain voltage increases again, the gate voltage is not sufficient to
maintain channel below the gate.
• The charge and channel depth start to decrease at drain end. At Vds =Vdsat
the charge and depth at drain end become zero.
• This point is called pinch off point. Beyond pinch-off depletion region forms
adjacent to drain and grows to source with increasing Vds .
• This operation mode is called saturation mode. Near pinch-off point, high
field region forms between channel-end and drain. Electrons arriving at this
end injected to drain region and accelerated to drain.

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N-Channel MOSFET Operation : I-V Curve (3)

• 3-D analysis of this system is very complex to


establish the I-V relation of NMOS.

• Several approximations be made to simplify


the problem.

• The Gradual-Channel Approximation (GCA) is


used which converts 3D problem into 1-D for
analytic derivation of I-V.
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Gradual Channel Approximation (GCA)

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Gradual Channel Approximation (GCA)(2)

• This means entire channel region is inverted.


• Assume QI(y) is the charge in inversion layer which is function of Vgs and
Vcs (y) and can be defined as

• Inversion layer thickness varies from S to D. Now consider incremental


resistance dR of differential channel region and assume constant surface
mobility μn of electrons in channel.

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Gradual Channel Approximation (GCA)(3)
• Now assume current density is uniform across the segment.
• Voltage drop along the incremental segment in y-direction is

Arrange and integrate along the channel : 0<y<L, 0<Vcs <Vds

L VDS

∫I
0
D dy = Wµn COX ∫ (V
0
GS − VCS − VTO )dVCS

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Gradual Channel Approximation (GCA)(4)

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Current – Voltage Characteristic
• Given : W =20μm, L=2μm, Vt0=1.0V, k=0.42 mA / V2

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Current – Voltage Characteristic
• Saturation region current equation.

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Current – Voltage Characteristic
• Saturation region current equation.

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Channel Length Modulation

For Vds > Vdsat

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Channel Length Modulation
• Electrons now have to travel L’ length. One can write current equation
again replacing L by L’. GCA still holds.

Simplify the expression

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Channel Length Modulation

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Substrate Bias Effects

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Current-Voltage Summary

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Current-Voltage Summary

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Assignment

1. Explain accumulation, depletion and inversion


conditions for PMOS transistor with the help of
cross section view of transistor.

2. Exercise 3.7 of Chapter-3 from Kang’s book.

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Next Class Topic

MOSFET Scaling and Small Geometry Effects.

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