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DIESEL POWER PLANTS

ADVANTAGES OF DIESEL POWER PLANT


The advantages of diesel power plants are listed below.
. Very simple design also simple installation.
. Limited cooling water requirement.
. Standby losses are less as compared to other Power plants.
. Quickly started and put on load.
. Smaller storage is needed for the fuel.
. Layout of power plant is quite simple.
. There is no problem of ash handling.
. Less supervision required.
. For small capacity, diesel power plant is more efficient as compared to steam power plant.
. They can respond to varying loads without any difficulty.

DISADVANTAGES OF DIESEL POWER PLANT


The disadvantages of diesel power plants are listed below.
1. High Maintenance and operating cost.
2. Fuel cost is more, since in India diesel is costly.
3. The plant cost per kW is comparatively more.
4. The life of diesel power plant is small due to high maintenance.
5. Noise is a serious problem in diesel power plant.
6. Diesel power plant cannot be constructed for large scale.

APPLICATIONS OF DIESEL POWER PLANT


Since there are many disadvantage of diesel power plant, although the plant find wide application
in the following fields.
1. They are quite suitable for mobile power generation and are widely used in transportation
systems consisting of railroads, ships, automobiles and aeroplanes.
2. They can be used for electrical power generation in capacities from 100 to 5000 H.P.
3. They can be used as standby power plants.
4. They can be used as peak load plants for some other types of power plants.
5. Industrial concerns where power requirement are small say of the order of 500 kW, diesel
power plants become more economical due to their higher overall efficiency.

Engine Classification
No of strokes per cycle(Two or Four)

No of cylinders

Type of fuel burned

Arrangement of cylinders

Method of ignition
Firing order
Reciprocating or rotary

Arrangement of valves and valve


trains
Type of cooling

Engine?
Heat engine is a device which converts heat energy (combustion of fuel) into
mechanical energy.

Engine Types
External-combustion
Internal-combustion

The Combustion Process


HC + O = H2O + CO2 + Heat
Fuel and air compressed
Spark
Combustion
Incomplete combustion results in Carbon Monoxide and some unburned
gasoline
Another group of atmospheric pollutants from the engine is nitrogen
oxides(NOx).

The high temperatures in the engine cause some of the nitrogen to unite with
oxygen. This forms the nitrogen oxides.

Effect of Heat

Purpose of the combustion process is to produce heat


Heat to do work
Heat will cause most substances to expand
Heat will cause air to expand

Increase in Pressure
Pressure measured in PSI or Pounds per square inch
Air pressure will increase when heated if it is in a enclosed area (air 15psi @
32 degrees will be 17psi @100 degrees)
Air pressure will increase if it is compressed (1/6 to 1/8 original volume in
gasoline engines)

Increase in Temperature
Air pressure and temperature increased when compressed

Gasoline engine temperature is raised several hundred degrees


Diesel temperature increase is even greater (more compression)

Terms
Thermometer measures temperature by the expansion of metals
Thermostat different metals expand at different rates. This difference is used
in thermostats by wielding two different metals together
Gravity is the attractive force between the earth and all other objects.

Terms cont.
Atmospheric Pressure air has weight 1 cubic foot of air weighs 0.08 lbs
[0.035 kg]. The blanket of air that surrounds the earth amounts to many
cubic feet of air. This combined weight amounts to about 15 psi [103 kPa] at
sea level.
Vacuum is the absence of air.

Producing a Vacuum
Engines produce a partial vacuum in the cylinder by the action of the piston
(this allows the air fuel mixture to be drawn into the cylinder by the force of
atmospheric pressure)

Basic
Parts
of
the
S.I
Engine
Cylinder block
Cylinder head
Piston

Intake valve

Piston rings

Exhaust valve

Piston pin

Camshaft

Connecting rod

Timing gears

Crankshaft

Spark plug

Cylinder Block
Basic frame of gasoline
engine.
Contains the cylinder.

Piston
Made of aluminium alloy

Piston Rings
Compression Rings
Oil control rings
The
rings
seal
the
compression gases above the
piston keep the oil below the
piston rings.
The leakage of compressed
fuel-air
mixture
into
the
crankcase, through the piston
clearance, is called blowby.
The
excessive
blowby
reduces the engine power,
wastes fuel, and pollutes the
air.

Piston Pins
Also known as the wrist
pin, it connects the piston
to the small end of the
connecting rod.
It transfers the force and
allows the rod to swing
back and forth.

Connecting Rod
Connects the piston and
piston pin to the
crankshaft.

Crankshaft
Along the the piston pin
and connecting rod it
converts the up and down
motion (reciprocating) of
the engine to spinning
(rotary) motion.

Flywheel
Carries the inertia
when there is no
power stroke.

Lower End Action

Intake and Exhaust Valves


Doorway that lets the
gases in and out of the
engine.

Camshaft
Through the use of an
eccentric the cam lobes
push the valves open.
The valve springs close
them.

Timing Gears
These gears drive the
camshaft from the
crankshaft.

Spark Plug
Electric match used to
begin the combustion
process of burning air and
gasoline to create heat.

Engine Related Terms


TDC (top dead center)
BDC (bottom dead center)
Stroke
Bore
Revolution
Compression Ratio
Displacement
Cycle

Four Stroke Cycle


Intake
Compression
Power
Exhaust

Intake Stroke
Intake valve opens.
Piston moves down, turn of
crankshaft.
A vacuum is created in the
cylinder.
Atmospheric pressure pushes
the air/fuel mixture into the
cylinder.

Compression Stroke
Valves close.
Piston moves up, turn of
crankshaft.
Air/fuel mixture is
compressed.
Fuel starts to vaporize and
heat begins to build.
The mixture is compressed
into 1/8 or less of its original
volume.

Power Stroke
Valves remain closed.
Spark plug fires igniting
fuel mixture.
Piston moves down,
turn of crankshaft.
Heat is converted to
mechanical energy.

Exhaust Stroke
Exhaust valve opens.
Piston move up,
crankshaft makes turn.
Exhaust gases are pushed
out polluting the
atmosphere.

Four Stroke Cycle Animation

Diesel Four Stroke Animation

Diesel 2 stroke

General cycle

All the gas engines and oil engines operate in the same general way. The working fluid undergoes

repeated cycles. A thermodynamic cycle is composed of a series of sequential events in a closed loop
on P-V or T-S diagram. A typical cycle has following distinct operations
1. Cylinder is charged
2. Cylinder contents are compressed
3. Combustion (Burning) of charge, creation of high pressure pushing the piston and expansion
of products of combustion.
4. Exhaust of spent products of combustion to atmosphere.

AN OVERVIEW OF RECIPROCATING ENGINES


Compression ratio

Mean effective
pressure
Spark-ignition (SI) engines
Compression-ignition (CI) engines

Nomenclature for reciprocating engines.


40

DIESEL CYCLE: THE IDEAL CYCLE


FOR COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES
In diesel engines, only air is compressed during the
compression stroke, eliminating the possibility of
autoignition (engine knock). Therefore, diesel engines
can be designed to operate at much higher compression
ratios than SI engines, typically between 12 and 24.

1-2 isentropic
compression
2-3 constantpressure heat
addition
3-4 isentropic
expansion
4-1 constantvolume heat
rejection.
In diesel engines, the spark plug is replaced
by a fuel injector, and only air is compressed
during the compression process.
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DIESEL ENGINES/HEAVY OIL ENGINES


In diesel engines air is compressed as the compression stroke begins and the fuel enters the
cylinder at the end of compression stroke.
Heat of compression is used for ignition of fuel.
In a typical diesel engine, air is compressed to about 30 bars, which increases the temperature
when finely atomised diesel fuel oil is sprayed into the heated air, it ignites and burns.
High compression ratio is therefore essential for reliable combustion and high efficiency.
The pressure ratio depends on engine speed, cylinder size and design factors.
Typical compression pressures in diesel engines range from 30 bar to 42 bar.

Cutoff
ratio
for the same compression ratio

Thermal
efficiency of the
ideal Diesel cycle
as a function of
compression and
cutoff ratios
(k=1.4).
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Components of diesel power plant


Engine
Air intake system
Exhaust system
Fuel system
Cooling system
Lubrication system
Engine starting system
Governing system

Components of diesel power plant

1.Engine-

generates the power and is directly coupled to the generator

2.Air intake system-

ducts.

conveys fresh air through pipes or

Exhaust system:-

Diesel engine exhaust manifold-

expansion joint- silencer- gas out.

Fuel system :-

The five essential functions of a fuel

injection system are:

1. To deliver oil from the storage to the fuel injector.


2. To raise the fuel pressure to the level required for atomization.
3. To measure and control the amount of fuel admitted in each cycle.
4. To control time of injection.
5.To spray fuel into the cylinder in atomized form for thorough mixing and
burning.

1. COMMON RAIL INJECTION


It incorporates a pump with built in pressure regulation, which adjusts pumping rate to maintain the desired injection
pressure. The function of the pressure relief and timing valves is to regulate the injection time and amount. Springloaded spray valve acts merely as a check. When injection valve lifts to admit high-pressure fuel to spray valve, its
needle rises against the spring. When the pressure is vented to the atmosphere, the spring shuts the valve.

2.INDIVIDUAL PUMP INJECTION

each fuel nozzle is connected to a separate injection pump. T he pump itself does the measuring of the fuel charge and control of
the injection timing.
The delivery valve in the
nozzle is actuated by
fuel-oil pressure.

3. DISTRIBUTOR SYSTEM
In this system, the fuel is metered at a central point i.e., the pump that pressurizes, meters the fuel and times the injection.
From here, the fuel is distributed to cylinders in correct firing order by cam operated poppet valves, which open to admit fuel to
nozzles.

COOLING SYSTEM OF DIESEL POWER PLANT


Based on cooling medium two types of cooling systems are in general use. They are
(a) Air as direct cooling system.
(b) Liquid or indirect cooling system.
Air-cooling is used in small engines and portable engines by providing fins on the cylinder. Big
diesel engines are always liquid (water/special liquid) cooled.
Liquid cooling system is further classified as
(1) Open cooling system
(2) Natural circulation (Thermo-system)
(3) Forced circulation system
(4) Evaporation cooling system.
OPEN COOLING SYSTEM
This system is applicable only where plenty of water is available. The water from the storage tank is directly supplied through
an inlet valve to the engine cooling water jacket. The hot water coming out of the engine is not cooled for reuse but it is
discharged.

Natural and forced cooling


system

Natural

forced

Lubrication system:The main function of lubricant is to,


1. To reduce friction and wear between the parts having relative motion by minimizing the
force
of friction and ensures smooth running of parts.
2. To seal a space adjoining the surfaces such as piston rings and cylinder liner.
3. To clean the surface by carrying away the carbon and metal particles caused by wear.
4. To absorb shock between bearings and other parts and consequently reduce noise.
5. To cool the surfaces by carrying away heat generated due to friction.
6. It helps the piston ring to seal the gases in the cylinder.
7. It removes the heat generated due to friction and keeps the parts cool.

Semi pressure(Splash) and full


pressure system

Semi pressure

full pressure

By Pass Type Wet sump lubrication System