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Perbandingan Sistem Ekonomi

Pokok Bahasan 2

27 June 2015

Pendekatan & Kriteria


Kinerja Sistem-Sistem
Ekonomi
Copyright 2014 by Achmadi

Tujuan Pembelajaran 2

Pendekatan dan Pengukuran Perbedaan Sistem-Sistem Ekonomi.


Kriteria-Kriteria Pengklasifikasian Sistem-Sistem Ekonomi.
Kriteria-Kriteria
Pengevalusian
Kinerja Sistem-Sistem Ekonomi.

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How Are Real-World Economic Systems Compared ?


* The Forces influencing Economic Systems :

* Level of Economic Development (Halm, 1973).


* Social and Cultural Forces.
* Economic Environment.

* The Nature and Operation of Economic Systems :


*
*
*
*
*

Determination of social preferences.


Institutions and its changes.
Policy instruments
Direct controls.
Resource allocation and income distribution.

* The Performance of Economic Systems :


* Economic Outcomes (Kennett, D., 2004)

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Fundamental Approaches to Distinguish between


Different Economic Systems

Four Important Dimensions :


* Nature of Property Ownership and Property Rights :
Individual or Private vs. Public or Government Ownership.
* Means of Coordinating Economic
Activity :
Command & Indicative Planning vs. Market System.
* Decision Making System :
Centralization vs. Decentralization.
* Incentive Systems :
Moral, Material, Coercive
(Kennett, D., 2004: 16-23).

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Measuring the Differences in Economic Systems

Economic Performance Indicators :


* Levels of Income.
* Economic Freedom.
* The Structure of Output.
* The Extent of Corruption.
* Economic Competitiveness.
* Recent Economic Performance.
* Environmental Sustainability Index.
* The Distribution of Income (Kennett, 2004 : 24 36).

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The Performance Criteria of Economic System


* Suatu Instrumen yang Quantitable or Nonquantitable
untuk Menganalisis Perbandingan atau Mengevaluasi suatu Sistem Ekonomi yang Ideal dengan Kinerja suatu Sistem Ekonomi yang Aktual.
* Alat Pengukur (Yardsticks) yang digunakan untuk
menganalisis Perbandingan atau mengevaluasi Kinerja Hasil Ekonomi yang dicapai (performance Economic outcome ) suatu Sistem
Ekonomi (Grossman, 1967 : 11).
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The Performance Criteria of Economic System

Determining The Performance Criteria of Economic System :

Select Criteria to be used to Compare Performance :


Memilih alternatif Kriteria terbaik untuk
membandingkan Kinerja Sistem Ekonomi.

Assign Weights to these Criteria :

According to ones own preferences.


According to systems preferences.
Determination of System Priorities.
Weights Problems :

The envolvement of substantial Subjective


Elements (Bornstein, Morris, 1989).

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Criteria for Classifying Economic Systems

Main Characteristics Approaches :


* Structure of Decision Making :

Centralization vs. Decentralization.


* Coordinating Mechanism :

The method of coordinating decisions regarding allocation


and distribution of goods and services :
Market mechanism vs Command, Central Planning.
* Property Rights Individual or private, Public or State.
* Types of Incentives Material, Immaterial, Moral.
* Public choice and objectives Income Redistribution.

* Role of Politics and Ideology :

Capitalism vs. Socialism (Gregory & Stuart, 1980 : 13-21).

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Criteria for Classifying Economic Systems

The Institutional Framework :


* Allocation Mechanisms :
Traditional, Market, and Command Economy.
* Forms of Ownerships :
Private vs Government or ownership by organized religious groups.
* Role of Planning Market vs. Guided Pl an .
* Types of Incentives Material vs Moral Incentives.
* Method of Income Redistribution and Social Safety Nets :
Equity, Trackle-Down Effects, Progressive Taxes.
* Role of Politics and Ideology :
Liberal vs. Social Democracy, Democracy vs dictatorship (Rosser & Rosser, 2004 : 5 15).

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Evaluating The Performance of Economic Systems


*

Objectives of Performance Economic Outcome Evaluation :


maximize Economic Outcome given the constraints
imposed by the environmental factors, the economic system, and policies (Gregory &Stuart,1980).

* How do we Evaluate Performance of an Economic system ?


To compare economic outcomes across different
economic systems a system with the maximum
economic outcome performs the best.
* Performance Economic System Comparisons :
* Economic Profiles of Countries .
* Economic Growth of Countries.
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Evaluating The Performance of Economic Systems


An Economic Profile of Socialist Countries in the1980s

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Evaluating The Performance of Economic Systems

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Criteria for Evaluating


The Relative Performance of Economic Systems

9 Quantitative Aspects (Morris Bornstein, 1994) :


1 The level of Output Real per capita Output (Unit).
2
3

The Growth Rate of Output Real per capita Output (%).


The Composition or Structural of Output :
Consumption and Investment Goods, Public Goods
and Private Goods, the share of Military Output.
4 Static Efficiency Resources are being fully utilized
to their best potential given the existing technology,
and as much is being produced as can be produced
the composition of goods being produced (people want ).
5 Dynamic Efficiency The allocation of resources over time to maximize long-run sustainable growth.
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Criteria for Evaluating


The Performance of Economic Systems

9 Quantitative Aspects (Morris Bornstein, 1994) :


6 Economic Security of the Individual :
In terms of Income, Employment, Health cares.
7 The degree of Freedom available to the individual :
in terms of Work, Consumption, Property, the
Civil and Political Realms, Investment.
8 The Degree of Equity of the Income and Wealth Distributions :
Gini Ratio, Lorenz Curve.
9 Macroeconomic Stability (Morris Bornstein, 1994).

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Economic Criteria for Evaluating


The Performance of Economic Systems

1. Plenty (Kelimpahan) (Gregory Grossman, 1967) :


* Jumlah Barang dan Jasa yang dihasilkan Masyarakat :
* Jumlah secara Keseluruhan atau Per Kapita.
* Indikator GNP, GDP, NI, PQLI, HDI.
* Produk / Jasa Menurut Sektor-Sektor Ekonomi :
3 Sektor (Primer, Sekunder, Tersier), 9 or 11 Sektor.
* Produk Kolektif / Publik vs Swasta / Individual .
* Produk Pertahanan vs. Pro du k Non Pertahanan.

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Economic Criteria for Evaluating


The Performance of Economic Systems

2. Economic Growth (Grossman, 1971; Gregory & Stuart, 1980)


* Economic Growth :
* Increasing the production capacity.
* increases in the output of goods & services in a system
and or increases in output per capita.
* Extensive Economic Growth :
growth achieved through the expanded use of resources
Ability to produce more output through innovation and invention.
* Intensive Economic Growth :
Growth achieved through the better use of resources.
* Net Economic Growth % Kenaikan GNP % Pertumbuhan Penduduk dan % tingkat Inflasi dalam waktu tertentu.

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Economic Criteria for Evaluating


The Performance of Economic Systems

3. Economic Stability :
(Gregory Grossman, 1971; Gregory & Stuart, 1980) :
* Economic Stability :

ability of an economic system to grow without significant


cyclical fluctuations such as inflation and unemployment
also does not have fluctuations in economic growth.

* Various Measures of Economic Stability :


*
*
*

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Volatility of Business Cycles.


Unemployment rate.
Price Stability or Inflation rate
(Bornstein, Morris, 1989).

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Economic Criteria for Evaluating


The Performance of Economic Systems

4. Economic Security (Gegrory Grossman, 1971) :


* Social Securtiy (guaranteed income for retirees),
and
Protection from adverse economic events (crisis).
* Perlindungan perorangan terhadap resiko menanggung beban kekuatan
Sosial dan Alam yang tak menguntungkan dan tak dapat dikendalikan.
* Pemberian jaminan Ekonomi Perorangan, dan pelayanan dan perlindungan sosial (welfare state).
* Keamana n atau keselamatan kerja, kepastian kerja,
lembaga Asuransi keselamatan kerja, iklim kerja.

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Economic Criteria for Evaluating


The Performance of Economic Systems

5. Efficiency (Grossman, 1971; Gregory & Stuart, 1980) :


* Efficiency :
T he condition in which the economy is producing
what people want at the least possible cost.
* Economic Efficiency :
- getting the most output for given inputs, No wasted resources.

- Efficient use of resources and under-utilize resources.


* Technological Efficiency :
ability to produce more output through innovation and
invention - uses Extensive economic growth.
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Economic Criteria for Evaluating


The Performance of Economic Systems

6. Equity and Justice (Equality) :


(Grossman, 1971; Gregory & Stuart, 1980) :
* Equality :
All people have a fair chance at competing for societal resources
* How Equally is income distributed ?
* The Lorenz Curve.
* The Gini Coefficient .
* What is the ideal distribution ?

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Economic Criteria for Evaluating


The Performance of Economic Systems

7. Economic Freedom

(Gregory Grossman, 1971) :

* Economic Freedom :
* Assessing the liberty of individuals to use their lab or or
finances without restraint and government interference
(free choices of occupational, consumption, ow nership).

* Individuals free to make their own economic choices.


* Business free to produce what they want.
* Components of Economic Freedom :

Business, Educational, Fiscal, Financial, Trade, Monetary, Investment, Labor, Technological, and Health freedom.
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Economic Criteria for Evaluating


The Performance of Economic Systems

8. Economic Sovereignty (Gregory Grossman, 1971) :


* Kedaulatan Konsumen :
Adanya peningkatan Kebutuhan Konsumen dan Perusahaan mampu memenuhi kebutuhan (produk dan jasa) konsumen tersebut.
* Masalah Kedaulatan Konsumen :
Klaim, Kontra Prestasi, Praktek Bisnis.
* Kedaulatan Rumah Tangga :
Kemauan Sektor rumah tangga (sebagai penyedia TK) untuk mempengaruhi macam produk / jasa yang diproduksi oleh perusahaan.

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Economic Criteria for Evaluating

The Performance of Economic Systems

9. Economic and Environment Protection (Gregory Grossman, 1971) :

Protection from Adverse Economic Events


(Layoff, Recessions, Illness, business
cycle, etc)
Social Security Guaranteed income for retirees.
Environment Protection :
Environmental degradation caused by production and consumption activities resulting from economic growth.

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Criteria for Evaluating


The General Performance of Economic Systems in Practice

Per capita GDP, and Growth Output rate.


Share of Gross Private investment in GDP.

Government Expenditure, Taxes Spending, Health, Education Spending, Military Spending The role of government.

Human Development Index (HDI), Health Care, Life


Expectancy, Adult Literacy Rate.
EFI (Economic Freedom Index) measure the extent to
which rightly acquired property is protected and individuals .
Openness to International trade and Investment.

The level of Corruption (Corruption Perceptions Index) :


the misuse of public power for private benefit (CPI = 1 10).
The Gini Rat io (Rosser & Rosser, 2004: 17 21).

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Criteria for Evaluating


The General Performance of Economic Systems in Practice

, 2012

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Copyright
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byAchmadi
Achmadi

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Criteria for Evaluating

The General Performance of Economic Systems in Practice


Rankings of Corruption by Country, 2007

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Criteria for Evaluating

The General Performance of Economic Systems in Practice


Rankings of Performance of various Economics, 2000

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Problems of Criteria for Evaluating


The Performance of Economic Systems

Indicators of Performance Criteria :


* Sukar untuk dikuantifikasikan :
Immaterial (kualitatif), Humanistik,
Universal.
* Problems of statistical analysis.

Choice of Criteria :
* Different systems have different goals.
* Single or multiple criteria.
* Subjectives preferences,

Economic Priority Decision :


Human Quality of Life, Basic Needs,
Econo mic Freedom, Economic Growth ?

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Difficulties Assessing Economic Systems :


Trade-Offs Among the Goals

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Full-Employment vs. Individual Freedom :


Policy that keeps foreign-made shoes out.
Economic Growth vs. Economic Stability :
More rapid Economic Growth will result in
more inflation.
Economic Equity vs. Economic Efficiency :
More equal will result in less Efficiency, meaning less rapid economic growth.
Economic Equity vs. Economic Freedom :
Minimum Wages.
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Difficulties Assessing Economic Systems :


Some Criteria easy to define but hard to measure

Distinguishing Growth from Business Cycle.

Measuring Efficiency.

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Flawed measures of unemployment and inflation, especially with planned socialism.


What is the ideal distribution ?
Distribution of income easy to measure
but hard to assess (Bornstein, Morris, 1989).
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Difficulties Assessing Economic Systems

Assigning weights is highly subjective.

Difficult to distinguish between effect


of System on performance and effects
of other determinants of Performance :

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Level of Development.
Population differences.
Educational di fferences.
Climate and Politics.
Proximity to other systems (Bornstein, Morris, 1989).
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Tugas 2

Jelaskan Kriteria-kriteria yang dipakai untuk mengklasifikasikan Sistem-Sistem Ekonomi. Kriteria manakah
yang lebih sesuai untuk diterapkan di Negara-Negara
di Dunia dalam era Globalisasi Ekonomi saat ini ? Berikan alasan-alasan Anda secukupnya !
Jelaskan Kriteria-Kriteria yang dipakai untuk mengevaluasi Kinerja Sistem-Sistem Ekonomi. Kriteria manakah yang lebih sesuai untuk diterapkan di Negara
Sedang Berkembang dalam era Globalisasi Ekonomi
saat ini ? Berikan argumentasi anda secukupnya !

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Selamat Belajar Semoga Sukses


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