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API 650 Welded Steel Tanks For Oil

Storage
1.1 General:
This standard covers material, design,
fabrication, erection and testing
requirements for vertical, cylindrical,
aboveground, closed and open top
welded steel storage tanks in various
sizes and capacities for internal pressure
approximating atmospheric pressure.
The tanks shall have entire bottom uniformly
supported, non-refrigerated, and
maximum operating temperature of 200
F.

API 650 Welded Steel Tanks For Oil


Storage
2.0 Materials
Most common plates used for the construction shall be ASTM
A283, A36 or any suitable higher strength carbon steel plate
as desired.
Normal design metal temperature shall be assumed to be 15 F
above the lowest 1 day mean ambient temperature in the
locality where the tank is to be installed.
Plate used for the reinforcement of the opening shall be of the
same material as the shell plate to which it is installed. It
shall be as thick as the primary plate. Shell nozzle and manway material shall be equal or greater strength and of
compatible material.
Plate manufacturer shall submit the mill test data including the
toughness at design metal temperature.
For materials with minimum tensile strength less than 70,000
psi , manual shielded metal arc welding electrodes shall
conform to E70xx series.

API 650 Welded Steel Tanks For Oil


Storage, Sec 3 Design
3.1 Joints
Tack welds are not considered to have strength value.
Full fillet welds are required for plates of 3/16 in (5mm) thick.
Plates with thickness more than 5 mm, the weld shall not be less
than 1/3 of the thinner plate thickness at the joint, but not less
than 5 mm.
Single lap welds are used for bottom and roof plate welds. Lap weld
joints shall not be less than 5t of the thinner plate but need not
be more than 1 in (25 mm).
Vertical shell joints shall be butt joints with complete penetration
and fusion that provides the same quality of deposited metal on
both inside and outside the weld surface. Vertical joints in
adjacent shell courses shall not be in alignment. An offset of at
least 5t shall be adopted, where t is the thicker plate thickness
at the joint.
Horizontal Shell joints shall be similar to vertical joint. The top
angles shall be joined by double lap weld.
Butt weld full penetration bottom joint shall be used normally with
the annular ring. A minimum of 2 in (50 mm) projection beyond
outside edge of shell shall be provided.

API 650 Welded Steel Tanks For Oil


Storage, Sec 3 Design
3.1 Joint (Contd.)
Shell to bottom fillet weld shall not be
more than in (12 mm) if the shell is
12 mm or less. It shall be less than t,
the thinner section at the joint.
Minimum two weld passes are required.
Roof and top angle joints shall be welded
with continuous full fillet weld. Top
angle (horizontal leg) may extend
either inside or outside.

API 650 Welded Steel Tanks For Oil


Storage, Sec 3 Design
3.4 Bottom plate shall be of at least in
(6 mm), exclusive of any corrosion
allowance. It shall project at least 1 in
(25 mm) beyond outside edge of the
shell.
3.5 Annular Bottom Plates
This shall be at least 24 in (600 mm) wide.
The 2 in (50 mm) projection beyond
outside shell surface is required.

API 650 Welded Steel Tanks For Oil


Storage, Sec 3 Design
3.6 Shell Design
This shall involve calculation for required (designed) shell
thickness td (including corrosion allowance for design
product, adoption of the nominal thickness of shell t,
material selection of the tank, and adopting allowable stress.
td = (2.6 D (H-1) G/ Sd ) + CA
tt = 2.6 D (H-1)/ St
Where td is designed shell course thickness (assumed to be 1 ft
above the bottom line of the shell course) in inch, D is the
tank diameter in ft, H is the height of the product level from
the bottom line of the shell course in ft, G is specific gravity
of product stored, Sd is the design allowable stress in psi and
CA is the corrosion allowance for the full life of the tank.
tt is the thickness required for the hydro test condition for the
particular shell course, and St is the allowable stress at the
hydro test condition and temperature. These formula are
allowed for shell diameter less than 200 ft.

API 650 Welded Steel Tanks For Oil


Storage, Sec 3 Design
3.7 Shell Openings
Man-way necks, nozzle necks, and shell plate opening shall be
uniform and smooth, with rounded corners. No reinforcement is
generally required for nozzles 2 in and smaller.
Permanent attachment welds shall not be closer than 3 in from
horizontal shell joint seams, nor closer than 6 in from vertical
joints, insert plate joints or reinforcement plate fillet welds.
3.10 Roofs
Roof plates shall be 3/16 in (5 mm) minimum. Self supported roof
may require thicker plate. Supported cone roof plate shall not be
rigidly attached to supporting members.
Roof plate shall be attached to the top angle. Supported cone roof
slope shall be in (20 mm) in 12 in (300 mm).
Rafters shall be spaced so that in the outer ring, their centers are
not more than 6.28 ft (1880 mm) measured along the
circumference. The maximum spacing of the inner ring rafters is
5.5 ft (1650 mm).
Roof columns can be steel pipe, which has to be sealed with
provision of draining and venting.

API 650 Welded Steel Tanks For Oil


Storage, Sec 3 Design
3.11 Wind Load on Tanks
Overturning stability shall be checked.
Wind velocity is assumed as 100 mph
(160 km/hr). The wind load on vertical
surface may be assumed as 30 lb/sq
ft. Load on projected cylindrical area
shall be 18 lb/sq ft. Anchor spacing
shall be maximum 10 ft apart.

API 650 Welded Steel Tanks For Oil


Storage, Sec 5 Erection
5.2 Welding
Acceptable weld processes shall be;
Shielded metal arc
Gas metal arc
Flux-cored arc
Submerged arc
Electro-slag
The welding may be performed manually,
automatic, semi-automatic. The quality
assurance shall be as per ASME PV Code,
Welding, Sec IX.

API 650 Welded Steel Tanks For Oil


Storage, Sec 5 Erection
5.2 Welding Precautions
Welding shall not be done on moist or wet surfaces
It shall not be performed in high wind conditions (unless protected,
shielded)
If the metal temperature is 0-32 F and t exceeds 1.25 in (32 mm),
preheating is required.
Multi-layer welds require removal of slag and deposits before next
layer is welded.
All weld edges must merge with plate surface without sharp angle.
Maximum acceptable undercut in vertical joint shall allowed up to
1/64 in (0.4 mm) and 1/32 in (0.8 mm) for horizontal butt
joints.
Tack welds shall be removed before finishing the joint.
Low hydrogen electrode shall be used for SMAW process for welds
12 mm and thick.

API 650 Welded Steel Tanks For Oil


Storage, Sec 5, Erection
5.2.3 Shell welding
Misalignment in completed vertical joint over 5/8 in (16 mm) thick
shall not exceed 10% of plate thickness with a maximum of 0.125
in (3 mm). For less thick joints it shall be limited to 0.06 in (1.6
mm).
Joints over 1.5 in (37 mm) thick shall have the weld pass not
exceeding in (18 mm) and minimum pre-heat shall be 200 F
(100 C).
Welds attaching nozzles, man-ways, other openings shall be visually
examined followed by MP or PT after the stress relief treatment but
before hydro test.
Shell to bottom weld shall be checked visually followed by MP or PT,
diesel test or right angle vacuum test. Alternate method shall be
pressure testing the volume between the inside and outside welds
to 15 psi (1 bar) applying soap solution to the face of fillet weld.
Tank bottom shall be tested using vacuum box, tracer gas test or
external float test or combination of them.
Reinforcing pad shall be pneumatic pressure tested with 15 psig
pressure between shell and reinforcement on each opening.

API 650 Welded Steel Tanks For Oil


Storage, Sec 5, Erection
5.5 Dimensional Tolerances
The maximum out of plumb ness of the
top relative to bottom of shell may not
exceed 1/200 of the total tank height.
Concrete ring walls shall be level within
+/- 1/8 in (3 mm) any 30 ft
circumference and within 6 mm in
total circumference, measured from
average elevation.

API 650 Welded Steel Tanks For Oil


Storage, Sec 6, Joint Inspections
6.1 Radiographic
Vertical Shell Welds:
Butt welds 10 mm and thinner, one spot in first 10 ft of each
type and thickness and for each welder and thereafter one
additional spot in each additional 100 ft. Atleast 25% of the
spots shall be at junctions of verticals and round seam joints,
minimum two per tank. Additional one spot in each bottom
ring vertical.
Plates greater than 10 mm to 1 in (25 mm), same as above plus
all junctions. Additional two spots in all bottom ring verticals.
Plates thicker than 1 in (25 mm), full radiography of all verticals
plus all junctions. Butt welds around periphery of insert
nozzles and man-ways shall be fully radiographed.
Horizontal Shell Welds:
One spot in first 10 ft for all thickness without regard to welder,
there after one spot each additional 200 ft.
Tank Bottom Annular ring:
Double butt weld joints, one spot on 10% of radial joints and
preferable spot shall be near the shell.

API 650 Welded Steel Tanks For Oil


Storage, Sec 6, Joint Inspections
6.5 Visual acceptance of defect
No visible crater or surface cracks or arc
strikes are acceptable.
Undercut acceptable shall be within
limits indicated under 5.2.
Porosity acceptable up to a cluster size
of 3/32 (2.5 mm) in diameter and one
in each 4 in (100 mm ) length of welds.

API 650 Welded Steel Tanks For Oil


Storage, Appendix C External Floating
Roof
External Floating Roof:
Decks (double and diaphragm) designed for drainage shall have
minimum slope of 3/16 in (5 mm) in 12 in (300 mm).
The pontoon roofs shall have sufficient buoyancy to remain afloat
on a specific gravity product of 0.7 and with primary drains
inoperative for following conditions;
10 in (250 mm ) rainfall in 24 hours period with roof intact.
Single deck ( diaphragm) and any two adjacent compartment
punctured in single deck pontoon types with no water or live
load.
Roof Drains: Primary drain may be hose, jointed or siphon type,
check valves required on pontoon and pan type roof, and
minimum roof drain size as 3 in for a tank of 120 ft dia and less
and 4 in for tank of more than 120 ft diameter.
Roof support leg shall be provided as pipe leg with perforated
bottom. The lengths may be adjusted from roof top. It shall
support the roof weight and live loads of 25 lb per sq ft.
At least one man way of 24 in (600 mm) diameter shall be
provided.
Centering and anti- rotation device shall be provided.