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LECTURE-2

Bio Medical Instrumentation

OBJECTIVES
Review the basic anatomy and physiology of the
cardiovascular system.
Describe the electrical and mechanical
events involved in the cardiac cycle.

WILLINGNESS

Cardiovascular System

ELE547 Asst.Prof.Harshul Thakur

The heart attack and its various forms, is the


cause of many deaths in the world today. Due to
advancement and development in recent years in
biomedical
instruments
have
contributed
reducing death from heart diseases.

ELE547 Asst.Prof.Harshul Thakur

FUNCTIONS OF CARDIOVASCULAR
SYSTEM

ELE547 Lovely Profession al University

The four major functions of the cardiovascular system


are:
1.To Transportof nutrients, oxygen, and hormones
to cells throughout the body and removal of metabolic
wastes
2.Protectionof the body by white blood cells,
antibodies, and complement proteins that circulate in
the blood and defend the body against foreign
microbes and toxins.
3.Toprotect the body from blood loss after injuries.
4. To help maintain temperature, fluid balance and 5
water content within the body.

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
ANATOMY

Heart :
Theheartis a muscular pumping organ located
medial to the lungs along the bodys midline in
the thoracic region.
About about 2/3 of the heart is located on the
bodys left side with the other 1/3 on right.
Your heart is about the size of your clenched fist

ELE547 Asst.Prof.Harshul Thakur

The cardiovascular system consists of the heart,


blood vessels, and the approximately 5 liters of
blood that the blood vessels transport.

ELE547 Asst.Prof.Harshul Thakur

Thoracic region

HEART

ELE547 Asst.Prof.Harshul Thakur

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apex

CONT..

Systemic circulation carries highly oxygenated blood from


the left side of the heart to all of the tissues of the body (with
the exception of the heart and lungs). Systemic circulation
removes wastes from body tissues and returns deoxygenated
blood to the right side of the heart. The left atrium and left
ventricle of the heart are the pumping chambers for the
systemic circulation loop.
For engineering stand point, The systemic circulation is a
high resistive circuit with a large pressure gradient between
the arteries and veins with respect to pulmonary circulation
system. The left heart may be consider as pressure pump and
right heart may be consider as volume pump.

ELE547 Asst.Prof.Harshul Thakur

Circulatory Loops
There are 2 primary circulatory loops in the human body:
thepulmonary circulation loop and thesystemic circulation
loop.
Pulmonary circulation transports deoxygenated blood from
the right side of the heart to thelungs, where the blood picks
up oxygen and returns to the left side of the heart. The
pumping chambers of the heart that support the pulmonary
circulation loop are the right atrium and right ventricle.

CONT..

All blood vessels contain a hollow area called the


lumen through which blood is able to flow.
Around the lumen is the wall of the vessel, which
may be thin in the case of capillaries or very
thick in the case of arteries.
There are three major types of blood vessels:
arteries, capillaries and veins.

ELE547 Asst.Prof.Harshul Thakur

Blood Vessels
Blood vessels are the bodys highways that allow
blood to flow quickly and efficiently from the
heart to every region of the body and back again.

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CONT..

ELE547 Asst.Prof.Harshul Thakur

Arteries and Arterioles: Arteries are blood vessels that


carry blood away from the heart. Blood carried by arteries
is usually highly oxygenated, having just left the lungs on
its way to the bodys tissues. Arterioles are narrower
arteries that branch off from the ends of arteries and carry
blood to capillaries.
Capillaries:Capillariesare the smallest and thinnest of
the blood vessels in the body. Capillaries connect to
arterioles on one end and venules on the other. Capillaries
carry blood very close to the cells of the tissues of the body
in order to exchange gases, nutrients, and waste products.
Veins and Venules: Veins are the large return vessels of
the body and act as the blood return counterparts of
arteries. The walls of veins to be much thinner, less elastic,
and less muscular than the walls of arteries. Venules are
similar to arterioles as they are small vessels that connect
capillaries, but unlike arterioles, venules connect to veins
instead of arteries. Venules pick up blood from many
capillaries and deposit it into larger veins for transport
back to the heart.

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ELE547 Asst.Prof.Harshul Thakur

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CONT..
Blood
The average human body contains about 4 to 5
litres of blood. As a liquid connective tissue, it
transports many substances through the body
and helps to maintain homeostasis of nutrients,
wastes, and gases. Blood is made up of red blood
cells, white blood cells, platelets, and liquid
plasma.
For more Study Click here

ELE547 Asst.Prof.Harshul Thakur

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chambers. The two upper chambers,


the left atria and right atria, are
synchronized to act together.
Similarly the lower chambers, the
ventricles, operate together.
The right atrium receives impure
blood from the veins of the body and
pumps in to right ventricle.
The right ventricle pumps the blood
to through the lungs, where it is
oxygenated.
The oxygenated blood then enters the
left atrium from which it is pumped
to left ventricle.
The left ventricle pumps the blood
into the arteries to circulate through
out the body.

ELE547 Asst.Prof.Harshul Thakur

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY,


From Extremities
The
heart is divided CONDUCTION
in to four
MECHANICAL
above the heart

From Extremities
below the heart

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CONT..
For engineering stand point, the muscle contraction of left

heart is larger and stronger than that of right heart because of


the greater pressure required for systemic circulation.

ELE547 Asst.Prof.Harshul Thakur

The pumping action is performed by heart muscles, these receives


their own pure blood supply from coronary arteries, which is
surrounded the heart like a crown. The impure blood of heart
moves from Coronary sinus to right atrium.

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ELE547 Asst.Prof.Harshul Thakur

The apex of the


heart is the lowest
portion of the heart.

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ELECTRICAL
CONDUCTION

The rhythmic cardiac impulse


SYSTEM
originates
in pacemaking
cells in the sinoatrial (SA)
node, located at the junction
of the superior vena cava and
the right atrium.

The impulse passes from the SA node in an organized manner through


specialized conducting tracts in the atria to activate first the right and then the
left atrium. Passage of the impulse is delayed at the AV node before it continues
into the bundle of His, the right bundle branch, the common left bundle branch,
the anterior and posterior divisions of the left bundle branch, and the Purkinje
network.

SA node activates first the right


and then the left atrium.
AV node delays a signal coming
from the SA node before it
distribute it to the Bundle of His.
Bundle of His distribute signal to
left bundle branch and right
bundle branch
then Purkinie fibers activate the
right and left ventricles
A typical QRS amplitude is 1-3
mV

The P-wave shows the heart's upper chambers (atria) contracting


(depolarization)
The QRS is combination of re-porization of atria and depolarization of
ventricles , both act almost simultaneously
The T-wave shows the heart's lower chambers (ventricles) relaxing
(repolarization)
The U-wave believed to be due repolarization of ventricular papillary
muscles.
P-Q interval represents the time interval during which excitation

BLOOD PRESSURE

Systolic Blood Pressure: When yourheartbeats, heart

A normal systolic blood pressure is 120 or below.


A systolic blood pressure number of 140 or higher, on repeated
measurements, is considered to be hypertension, or high blood
pressure.

Diastolic Blood Pressure: The diastolic blood pressure


number or the bottom number indicates the pressure in the
arteries when the heart rests between beats or at period in
which heart cavities fill with blood.

ELE547 Asst.Prof.Harshul Thakur

muscles contracts, specially the ventricular muscles and pushes


blood to pulmonary artery and the aorta. This force creates
pressure on the arteries. This is called systolic blood pressure.

A normal diastolic blood pressure number is 80 or less.

Note: Consult book for specific ranges of the above two.???

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Blood going
In
Blood Coming
out

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