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Japanese

Encephalitis
Reported by: Alex M. Cardana
 5 October 2005 - Fighting
Japanese Encephalitis in India

Encephalitis Outbreak in North India "Catastrophic", Toll Hits 456


Japanese
Encephalitis
 Since it emerged in Japan in the
1870s, Japanese encephalitis has
spread across Asia and has
become the most important cause
of epidemic encephalitis
worldwide.
 What is Japanese encephalitis?
Japanese encephalitis is a disease that is
spread to humans by infected mosquitoes in
Asia. It is one of a group of mosquito-borne
virus diseases that can affect the central
nervous system and cause severe
complications and even death.

 Infectious Agent: Genus:Flavivirus; Japanese


encephalitis virus (arbovirus); Vector: Mosquito
called “Culex tritaeniorhynchus”
Culex
tritaeniorhynchu
s
How does JE
spread?
 The Virus is passed on by a bite of
an infected mosquito that has
previously sucked blood from an
infected animal - mainly pigs and
birds. Swallows are often hosts for
the virus. In other words, Pigs and
bird populations constitute a
reservoir of the disease. The virus
is not transmitted from person to
person!
Geographic
distribution of
Japanese
encephalitis
(in yellow).
Epidemiology
 Japanese encephalitis is the
leading cause of viral encephalitis
in Asia, with 30,000–50,000 cases
reported annually.
 Case-fatality rates range from
0.3% to 60% and depends on the
population and on age.
 Residents of rural areas in
endemic locations are at highest
risk; Japanese encephalitis does
not usually occur in urban areas.
Epidemiology
 Japanese encephalitis is a
seasonal disease that usually
occurs in the summer and fall in
the temperate regions of China,
Japan, and Korea. In other places,
disease patterns vary with rainy
seasons and irrigation practices.
Clinical Features
 Incubation period of 5 to 15 days
and the vast majority of infections
are asymptomatic: only 1 in 250
infections develop into encephalitis.

 Symptoms usually appear 6-8 days


after the bite of an infected
mosquito.
Clinical Features
 Mortality of this disease varies but
is generally much higher in
children.
 Transplacental spread has been
noted.
 Life-long neurological defects such
as deafness, emotional liability and
hemiparesis may occur in those
who have had CNS involvement.
Signs and
Symptoms
 Non-specific symptoms (last for 1
and 6 days); Fever, headache and
malaise.
 Acute encephalitic stage include
neck rigidity, cachexia,
hemiparesis, convulsions and a
body temperature bet. 38 and 41
degrees C. Mental retardation
developed from this disease
usually leads to coma.
 Japanese Encephalitis is diagnosed by
detection of antibodies in serum and
CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) by IgM capture
ELISA.

 Treatment: There is no specific


treatment for Japanese encephalitis and
treatment is supportive.
Prevention
 A formalin-inactivated mouse-brain
derived vaccine was first produced
in Japan.
- Adverse effects: redness and
pain at the injection site.
-Because the vaccine is produced
from mouse brain, there is a risk of
autoimmune neurological
complications of around 1 per
million vaccinations.
Prevention
- Controlling the mosquito
population with insecticides is
another preventive measure.
- Using mosquito repellents
- Sleeping under a bed net.
END……..