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# Uncertainty In

Measurement

Presented by:
Dijo Paul

Contents
Introduction
Reporting of Uncertainties
Calibration Lab
Testing Lab

Basic Terminologies
Step by Step Procedures in Uncertainity Measurement

Type A
Type B
Combined
Expanded

Solved Example
Uncertainity Budget

Introduction
Measurement Uncertainity As required by ISO 17025
Let us take the example of measuring the dimension
of a dot

.
Considering the environment is controlled, the
maximum probability in expected results in
taking the dimensions is 11.
But the true value is only one no.

Introduction

True Value
The maximum spread possibility is called Uncertainity

Aim: To reduce the spread is the quality of the data. Always the measuremen
be nearer to the true value

## As per cl.5.4.6.1 of ISO 17025-A calibration laboratory or a testing laboratory

performing its own calibration shall have and shall apply a procedure to estim
the uncertainty of measurement for all calibration and type of calibrations

## Thus calculation/Evaluation/quantification for calibration is mandatory in calib

Reporting of Uncertainties
Reporting of Uncertainty-As per ISO
17025,Cl.5.10.4.1,the calibration
certificate shall include the following,
which are necessary for interpretation of
calibration results:
The environmental conditions under which the
Measurement Traceability Statement
Measurement Uncertainty Statement
Or else the report is invalid

Reporting of Uncertainties
Reporting in case of Testing
Laboratory-As per ISO 17025Cl.5.4.6.2 the uncertainity calculation
is not mandatory and is
conditional.i.e.Only applicable to some
tests.
As per International accreditation body
APLAC TC-005,three types of test are
involved in testing

Reporting of Uncertainties
They are as follows:
Quantitative Tests-Where the results are given
in terms of units or numbers. In these type of
tests it is mandatory to evaluate measurement
uncertainty
Qualitative tests: Where results are not given in
terms of of units or numbers.e.g.Visibility test,
Pass/fail test,color test environmental test.In
this type of test uncertainity measurement is
not required on test but on people conducting
calibration, to ensure uniformity in decision

Reporting of Uncertainties
They are as follows:
Semi qualitative or Semi quantitative: Certain test results
shall be given as pass/fail based on certain particular
limit(nos)

## Reporting in Testing: As per ISO 17025

cl.5.10.3.1.c:where applicable, a statement on the
estimated uncertainty of measurement; information on
uncertainty is needed in test report when it is relevant
to the validity or application of the test results, when a
customers instruction so requires, or when the
uncertainty affects compliance to a specified limit
(i.e. M.U is optional and is required only if customer asks for
or if required in decision making)

Reporting of Uncertainties
If we go to the genesis of M.U,it is associated with the method
Defining the scope of testing by ISO 17025:

Parameters Method
/Procedure

Range

M.U

## Uncertainty Range of the method

Reporting of Uncertainties
Example: Suppose the range of the
method is is
10

## If <10 is acceptable limit then if the

measurement is 7 then the result is pass.
If the measurement is 9 or 11 we can not
give compliance, since the uncertainity
of +/-1 can be effected
If measurement is 13 then this is a clear
case of non-compliance

Reporting of Uncertainties
Confidence Level(CL)-If CL is 95%
then out of 100 readings taken 95
times readings fall within the limits.
M.U depends on CL
CL shall be at least 95%

Basic Terminology
Mesurand-Parameter or qty under measurement
Measurement-Set of Operation what we do
Result of measurement-Complete statement
along with measured uncertainty
Method of measurement- basically is the
principle of measurement.e.g.Measurement of
dimension using methods like null method,
projectile method etc. or based on so and so
standards like IS-1050,IS-14470
Measurement Procedure-Is step by step set of
Operation according to different methods.

Basic Terminology
Influence quantity-A quantity that is not
under direct measurement but effect the
measurement. These quantities are
called sensitivity coefficients in
uncertainty measurements
E.g. Measurement of resistance, here
temperature plays a major role but the
measurement isfor resistance.

Rt [ R0

Ro (t1 t 2 )]

X deg .C
deg .C

Basic Terminology
Accuracy of Measurement-degree of
closeness to true value
Precision-degree of closeness in multiple
measurements
Highly precise but not accurate
True Value
Accurate and Precise
Neither accurate nor precise

Basic Terminology
Repeatability-Is the precision under the
same condition & same duration of time.
Same condition may be same method,
same environmental condition, same
equipment or same person
Reproducibility-Precision under changed
condition and long duration of time
i.e.method can be different but results
shall be same

Basic Terminology
Error-is the difference between
measured and true value
Uncertainity-Is the probability where the
result may lie.i.e. it is a range
error

-U

True
Valu
e

+U

Uncertainity

Basic Terminology
Measurement Uncertainity Value-+/- U
at 95% CL and K=1.56
Where CL=confidence Level
K=coverage Factor

## Step by Step Procedures in

Uncertainity Measurement
Step by Step Procedure in
Uncertainity Measurement
Based on ISO GUM Document
GUM=Guidance on Uncertainty
Measureme
Measurement nt
Uncertainit
y
ISO Guide
98.3/GUM DOC

NIST tn1247
MPC

EA-4-02ny
EUROCHE
M Edition
3 Guide-

Used for
Chemical Lab

UKAS M
3003

## Step by Step Procedures in

Uncertainity Measurement
NABL 141-Shall not be followed. Since there
are mistakes in it.
Step by Step Procedure
1. Title/Measurement statement-Evaluation of
measurement uncertainity in measurement of
such and such parameters by using such and
such method
2. Method-ISO/IS/Redundant method
3. Mathematical Model
4. Fish bone diagram/Cause & effect diagram

## Step by Step Procedures in

Uncertainity Measurement
5. Steps or Procedure
6. Information given
7. Assumption (if any)
8. Evaluation of standard uncertainities
9. Combined measurement uncertainity
10.Calculation of effective degree of freedom
11.Expended measurement uncertainity
12.Uncertainity budget-Tabular form of
complete information

## Step by Step Procedures in

Uncertainity Measurement
Modeling of Measurement:
(Mathematical Model)
Mathematical Model is the formula
e.g.

Rt [ R0 Ro (t1 t 2 )]

Y F ( R0 , , t1 , t 2 )

## Step by Step Procedures in

Uncertainity Measurement
Mathematical Model:
E.g.2: % Moisture=(change in wt./Initial
wt.)X100
%Moisture=[(W2-W3)/(W3-W1)]X100
E.g.3:Tensile Strength=Force/Area

Y=F(F,A)
Digital Multimeter:
Vx=Vstd +/- V
Y=F(X1,X2)

## Step by Step Procedures in

Uncertainity Measurement
Fish Bone Diagram:
wt moisture
%M

temp
time
For e.g. Let us take the Mathematical Model for % Moisture
%Moisture=[(W2-W3)/(W3-W1)]X100

## Step by Step Procedures in

Uncertainity Measurement
Fish Bone Diagram:
wt moisture
%M

temp
time
Thus Fish bone diagram comes only from Mathematical Model

## Step by Step Procedures in

Uncertainity Measurement
Standard Uncertainities
I. TYPE A Evaluation of Standard
Uncertainities:
Here uncertainity based on statistical analysis
on multiple or repeated observation is
taken in to account
TYPE A Uncertainity always have normal
distribution
In report it shall be mentioned as std
uncertainity due to repeatability

## Step by Step Procedures in

Uncertainity Measurement
Standard Uncertainties
I. TYPE A Evaluation of Standard
Uncertainities:
Sl.No.

Qty(qi)

q1

q2

q3

q4

Qi-Q

(Qi-Q)^2

n
n no.ofobservations

std .deviation.

2
(
q

q
)
i
i 1

n 1

## Step by Step Procedures in

Uncertainity Measurement
Standard Uncertainties
I. TYPE A Evaluation of Standard
Uncertainties:
U type A

std .deviation

Degree of Freedom=n-1
If n=1,then the Degree of freedom
is
Sensitivity coefficient Ci =1
Probability distribution is normal
Hence Std Uncertainity=Ci X UtypeA

Standard Uncertainties
Pooled Estimate of Variance:
Suppose you make one set of reading
today & another set of reading on
day-2 and on day-3 & day-4(Using
same method).Used to validate a
v S .D

method
Sl.N Day-1
Day-2
Day-3
SD

Pooled

o.

3
4
5

i 1

v
i 1

i
2

## v1 SD1 v2 SD22 v3 SD3 ..

SDPooled
v1 v2 v3 ...
where....vi D.O.F

Standard Uncertainities
Pooled Estimate of Variance:
SDPooled
m
Where, m total.no.ofobservations
D.O.F v1 v2 v3
U Pooled

Standard Uncertainities
Type B Uncertainty:
It is a known Value
It can be a previous measurement data(like
pooled data)
General behaviour & properties of materials&
instruments,tolerance of equipment,resolution of
equipment(e.g.81/2 igit DMM),temeprature
coefficient,least count of vernier calipers
Manufacturers spesification
Data derived from calibration and other
certificate

Standard Uncertainities
Type B Uncertainty:
E.g.Calibration certificate of std
calibrator contains M.U of
calibrator,which has to be
considered as Type-B uncertainity

Standard Uncertainities
Type B Uncertainty-Students Table

Standard Uncertainities
Type B Uncertainty-Students Table
Students table can be used only if
the distribution is normal
From the table 95,95.45,99 etc.are
CL
For e.g. A calibration certificate
states that a body of mass 10kg
weighs 10.00065kG+/-300mg at 3o

Standard Uncertainities
Type B Uncertainty
This is of the form

## Where c is the uncertainity

associated and K is the coverage
factor under different D.O.F and o
the std.deviation

Standard Uncertainities
Type B Uncertainty:
U calibration

value
k

At k=1.96,CL=95%
Hence,Ucalibration=300/1.96=153.06
If K is not mentioned, we have to take the maximum
uncertainity i.e.corresponding to D.O.F=
Because we have to accommodate max
uncertainities

Standard Uncertainities
Type B Uncertainty:
If CL is high no. of measurement to be
taken shall be more to indicate the
statistical stability of our measurement.
If the result is given as +/-300 in report
with no CL mentioned. This situation
will never come in calibration. This will
come in indication of resolution e.g.
Least count in DMM by manufacturer

Standard Uncertainities
Type B Uncertainty:
-a
-300

+a
+300

## In rectangular distribution most values lie

between a & +a
In triangular most values lies near to centre
Theoretically triangular distribution is preferred
but practically difficult

Standard Uncertainities
Type B Uncertainty:
U rec tan gular

a
3

i.e.300/sqrt(3) =173.2
U triangular

a
6

i.e.300/sqrt(6) =122.4
Therefore Urectangular is always
better

Standard Uncertainities
Combined Uncertainty:
Only if we know the Mathematical Model
Two types of mathematical model:
1. Y=a+b----------Linear/uncorrelated(since a,b are
independent
2. Y=ab/c---------Non-Linear/Correlated
e.g. T.S=Force/Area where Force depend on Area hence
corelated.
e.g-2: Volume V
Here alpha is the sensitivity coefficient(ci).This indicates
how much volume is sensitive to temperature

Standard Uncertainities
Combined Uncertainty:
If mathematical model is linear:
Uc

(c U
i 1

xi

)2

If Y=a+b+c-d then,
U c (CaU xa ) 2 (CbU xb ) 2 (CcU xc ) 2

Standard Uncertainities
Combined Uncertainty:
When mathematical model is in product
form:
Y=(a+b)/c+d)
U c (Y )
CiU xi 2
(
)
Y
xi

This UncertaintyU is
called
relative
(T .S )
U
U
(
) (
)
T .S
Force
Area
std.uncertainity
U
U
c

U c (T .S ) T .S

Force

Force

Force

Area

)2 (

Area

Area

)2

Standard Uncertainities
Combined Uncertainty:
Unit will be of T.S
Y ax bx 2 .........NonLinear

Effective D.O.F:
eff

[U combined ]4
n

[ x ]
i 1

i 1

Standard Uncertainities
Combined Uncertainty:
Therefore for
Type A Uncertainity D.O.F=n-1
Type B Uncertainity D.O.F.=
For calibration we can not have CL
lower than 95%

Standard Uncertainities
Expended Uncertainty:
U exp

KU combined

## Where K=Coverage Factor

Result :
Value +/- Uexp at so and so CL and
coverage Factor k

Solved Example
Example:
Title:Calibration of 41/2 digit multimeter for its
100V DC range by application of 6V from
calibration equipment(Multi Product calibrator
Method:As per NABL-141
Mathematical Model:Vx=Vs+Vx----Linear
model
Where,Vx=Vtg.indicated in DMM
Vs=Voltage applied from calibrator
Vx=Error of the multimeter

Solved Example
Example cont:
Fish bone diagram:
repea
tabilit
y

Calibratio
n
Uncertaini
ty

Calibration of
41/2 DMM

Solved Example
Step by Step Procedure
5. Calculation of effective degree of
freedom
6. Expended measurement
uncertainity
7. Uncertainity budget-Tabular form of
complete information

Solved Example
Information Given:
1.From Calibration report of the
standard measuring device(here
multi product calibrator)
a1=20V
2.From the manufacturers catalogue of
DMM(here Fluke 87V)
Resolution=.001V

Solved Example
Assumptions:
or connection are considered to be
negligible
Steps or Procedures:
1. Standard Uncertainity due to
repeatability-Type A
Assuming Normal distribution

Solved Example
Assumptions:
Sl.N Qty(q
o
i)

Qi-Q

(Qi-Q)2

6.000

-.000
2

4xE-8

6.001

.0006

4.9XE-7

5.999

.0012

1.44XE-6

6.002

.0018

3.24XE-6

5.999

.0012

1.44XE-6

qi
n

6.0002V

Standard Deviation=9.7xE-4

UA

=.000434V

D.O.F A=n-1=4

Solved Example
2. Evaluation of Standard Uncertainty
due to calibration:
Type B
a) Uncertainty due to Inaccuracy/stability of
standard
Given as,
a= 11ppm of measured Value+2V(obtained
from UUCs catalogue/calibration certificate )
Hence,Ub1=a/Sqrt(3)
a 11 10 6 6V 2 10 6 68 10 6

a .000068V
a
U b1
.0000392
3

## Assuming Rectangular distributio

Solved Example
2. Evaluation of Standard Uncertainty due to
calibration:
Type B
b) Uncertainty due to resolution of UUC:
Resolution of DUC=.001V
Limit=0.5V
a2 = Resolution X Limit
a2=.001X.5=.5x10^-3
Assuminga rectangular
distribution,
.5 10 3
U b2

D.O.F=

1.732

2.886 10 4

Solved Example
2. Evaluation of Standard Uncertainty
due to calibration:
Type B
c) Uncertainty due to Calibration of Reference
standard Instrument:
U b3

a
20 V

1 10 4 mV
k
2

## Since K=2 at 95.45% CL

Assuming normal distribution
D.O.F b3=

Solved Example
Combined measurement
uncertainty

Uc

(c v
i

i 1

xi

Uc U a U b1 U b 2 U b 3
U c .000000273V

Solved Example
Calculation of effective degree of
freedom
4
4

U combined

.000000273
eff n
4
4
4
4
4
a b1 b 2 b3

xi
a b1 b 2 b 3
i 1
n

i 1

D.O.F =

Solved Example
Expanded Uncertainty
U e K U c

Ue=2X.000000273V=.000000546V
Result: The measured final result is:
6.0002V+/-.000000546V

Uncertainty-Budget
Para
mete
rs

Valu
e
(mea
n
Valu
e)

Limit
s

Prob
abilit
y
Distri
butio
nTypeA or
B

Std.
Unce
rtaini
ty(Ux
)

## R.S.U=Result of Standard Uncertainty

Expanded Uncertainity,UExp=

tivity .
rtaini [(ci
Coe
ty
Uxi/x
fficie
(ciUx i)]
nt(Ci
)
)

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