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Scalar Holographic Artificial

Impedance Surface
RAMSHA BUKHARI
REG # 140218060

Introduction
A method for controlling electromagnetic surface

wave propagation and radiations from complex


metallic shapes.
An artificial impedance surface is implemented as

sub-wavelength metallic patches on a grounded


dielectric substrate.

The effective impedance is pattern over the surface

by varying the size of metallic patches.


Using holographic technique, a surface is designed

to scatter a known input wave into a desired output


wave.

Problems Addressed
Two grey areas in the domain of antennas are
Integration of antennas on complex shaped

structures.
Radiating the regions otherwise shadowed.

Applications
Electrically controllable conformal antennas.
High-impedance ground planes.
Phase shifters for electronic beam steering.
Leaky-wave antennas for efficient radiation beam

steering.
Reflector-type antennas for efficient radiation beam
steering.
Antenna arrays for suppressing the mutual coupling
of antenna elements.

Leaky Waves on Modulated Impedance surface

Mathematical foundation for this work is Oliners


comprehensive analysis of leaky waves on modulated
impedance surface.
He describes how the propagation and radiation of
leaky waves are controlled by the magnitude,
modulation depth and period of the surface
impedance.

Mathematical Basis
I implemented Oliners impedance boundary

conditions using an artificial impedance surface and


extended the modulation concept using a 2D
holographic patterning method.

2
X ( s) X s 1 M cos(
a

z )

Xs -value of surface reactance constant over all the surface.


M-amplitude of modulation.
a-phase of modulation.
guided-wave are of two types, the surface waves who

propagate along the direction parallel to the surface and


decays exponentially with depth, while leaky surface waves
are attenuated in the surface direction and radiate energy
into space.
When the modulation spacing a is small, the guided wave
is a (trapped) surface wave; when this spacing exceeds a
critical value, a leaky wave is created and radiation occur.

Holographic leaky wave antenna concept

Surface waves (undulating arrows) are excited on an artificial


impedance surface, and are scattered by variations in the surface
impedance to produce the desired radiation (straight arrows).

Microwave Holography

The basic principle of optical holography was

introduced by Dennis Gabor in 1948.


Holo meaning whole or full and Graphe meaning
writing.
It is called so because the method works on the
complete information of a wave i.e. phase and
amplitude rather than just intensity values.

According to Gabor, holography was a two-step

process.
Writing involving the recording of complete
information of a wave(phase and amplitude) on a
photographic film.
Reading the hologram done by illuminating the
photographic film by the same reference wave that
has been used in the writing.

The same principle of optical holography is

implemented for microwave holography.


In Microwave holography a surface wave produced

by a source antenna is the reference wave and the


wave with desired radiation characteristics is the
object.

And when the hologram (interference pattern) is illuminated by the


same reference wave , we can retrieve the copy of original wave.

Scalar impedance pattern formed from holographic


interference

light areas corresponding to high


impedance

The interference pattern produced by these two is

replaced by scatters which scatter the reference wave


to produce the desired radiation characteristics.

Holographic pattern implemented using square metallic


patches

High impedance regions have small gaps


(and are darker).

Summer Project Plan

The summer period will start on June 15, 2015.


Three main tasks are

Coding and Simulation


Fabrication and Measurement
Dissertation writing ,poster and presentation

Coding and Simulation

Sub tasks for coding and simulation are

Implementation of hologram in Matlab using C language.

Implementation of geometry in CST design studio.

Modification of the design of second part for a plane wave .

Modification of the design of second part for a monopole


antenna.

Fabrication and Measurements

artificial impedance surface would be implemented

using the hologram obtained in first phase and


testing part would be performed at Communication
Research group at the University of Sheffield

Gantt Chart

Risk Assessment

Milestones & Deliverables


Milestones

Deliverables

Interim report with all literature review


and project plan.

CST model for artificial impedance


surface with metallic patches on
grounded dielectric substrate.

Presentation for the second marker.

Fabricated artificial impedance surface.

Matlab code for microwave holography.

Final dissertation and project poster.