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DIRECTING

OR

LEADING

DEFINITION

4 th stage of management process

Coordinating or activating

In this doing phase of mgt, managers direct/lead work of subordinates

COMPARISON

LEADERS

Influences & guides direction, opinion and course of action

MANAGERS

Brings things about; the one who accomplishes, has the responsibility, and conducts

CHARACTER OF A LEADER

Do not have delegated authority but influence thru power

Have wider variety of roles May/may not be part of formal org.

Focus on group process, info gathering, feedback & empowering others

Emphasize IPR Direct willing followers

Have goals that may/may not reflect those of the org.

LEADERSHIP THEORIES

Great Man Theory (Aristotle)

Some people are born to lead and others to be led

Trait Theory

Some people have certain characteristics that make them better leaders than others

LEADERSHIP THEORIES

Leadership Styles Theory (Lewin & White)

Authoritarian

Character

Strong control Motivation by coercion Co: downward DM: other not involved E: on difference of status (I & You) Cr: punitive

I: predictability, frustration reduction & security Pros: useful in crisis; increase productivity

LEADERSHIP THEORIES

Democratic

Character

Less control M: economic and ego awards Directed thru suggestion & guidance Co: up & down DM: involvement of others E: We Cr: constructive

I: grp working for extended period; cooperation and coordination

Pros: promotes autonomy & growth among individual workers

LEADERSHIP THEORIES

Laissez-faire

Character

Little/no control M: when requested by group Little/no direction Co: up & down DM: dispersed throughout group E: group Cr: withheld

I: poorly defined probs & when brainstorming is needed Pros: increase creativity & productivity (IF) Cons: frustrating (apathy & disinterest)

LEADERSHIP THEORIES

Law of the Situation (Follett)

Situation should determine directives after allowing everyone to know the problem

Contingency Leadership Theory (Fiedler)

No one leadership style is ideal for every situation

Task vs Relationship in determining leadership style (Blake & Mouton)

There are various combinations of concern

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LEADERSHIP THEORIES

Situational Leadership Theory (Hersey & Blanchard)

As people mature, leadership style becomes less focused & more relationship-oriented

Situational Leadership Theory (Tannenbaum & Schmidt)

Primary determinants of leadership style should include nature of situation, skills of manager & abilities of members

Formal & Informal Organizational Structures Influence Leader’s E

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LEADERSHIP THEORIES

Servant Leadership Theory (Greenleaf)

Put serving others as first priority

Transactional & Transformational Leadership (Burns)

Traditional; concerned with day-to-day operations

Committed, has vision & enables other to be empowered by vision

Visioning in Transformational Leadership (Tyrrell)

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LEADERSHIP SKILLS (DECISION MAKING)

Complex, cognitive process as choosing a part. course of action

Critical elements

Define objectives clearly Gather data carefully Generate many alternatives Think logically Choose & act decisively

Individual variations

Values Life experience Individual preference

BASE OF POWER

POWER – that w/c enables us to accomplish goals

Types

Reward power Coercive power Legitimate Expert Referent Informational

STRATEGIES FOR BUILDING PERSONAL POWER BASE

Maintain personal energy

Present powerful pix to others

Pay entry fee Determine powerful in org. Learn language & symbols of org.

Learn how to use org.’s priorities

Increase prof K&S Maintain broad vision Use experts & seek counsel Be flexible Develop visibility & voice in org. Learn to toot own horn Maintain sense of humor Empower others

PRINCIPLES OF DELEGATION

Rights of Delegation

the right task the right circumstance the right person the right direction/communication the right supervision.

PRINCIPLES OF DELEGATION

Four guidelines for effective delegation by Koloroutis (2004, p. 136)

Delegation requires RNs to make decisions based on patient needs, complexity of the work, competency of the individual accepting the delegation, and the time that the work is done.

Delegation requires that timely information regarding the individual patient be shared, defines specific expectations, clarifies any adaptation of the work in the context of the individual patient situation, and provides needed guidance and support by the RN.

Ultimate accountability for process and outcomes of care – even those he or she has delegated - is retained by the RN.

RNs make assignments and the care provider accepts responsibility, authority, and accountability for the work assigned.

SPECIFIC ACCOUNTABILITIES OF RNS, OTHER HCPS, AND EMPLOYERS/HC FACILITIES

RNs (delegators) are accountable to:

a) their regulatory body, aegs, and employers for the competent performance of nsg services they provide.

b) have a sound rationale for a decision to delegate.

c) assess whether the outcome of a delegated task/function will be reasonably predictable.

e) determine that the HCP (delegatee) has the necessary ability and knowledge to perform the task/function safely and competently. f) know the educational preparation and competencies of other HCPs involved in client care. g) provide the necessary communication, support and supervision for a delegated task/ function to a delegatee. h) evaluate whether a delegated task was

i) document a decision to delegate, with rationale and outcomes.

j) ensure that the facility/organization has adequate resources to support a decision to delegate and to support the healthcare providers involved (e.g., policies, educational preparation).

DELEGATING TO THIRD-PARTIES

On occasion, registered nurses may be required to teach S.O.s how to perform a nursing task/function.

In such situations, the registered nurse would be accountable to:

a) assess that the family member or third-party has the ability to perform the task/function safely and competently.

b) competently provide the teaching based on evidence-based knowledge.

c) assess the effectiveness of the teaching, and communicate available resources to family members or third-parties.

DELEGATION

RNs accountable for overall dev’t & coordination of NCP LPNs & UCPs contribute only Knowledge used to determine care (assessment, evaluation & judgment of RN) is not delegated

COMMUNICATION

MODES

Written

Know what you want to say before writing Put people into writing Use action words Write plainly Use as few words as possible Use simple, direct sentences Give reader direction Arrange material logically Use paragraphs for lead Connect thoughts Be clear Express thoughts in similar ways

COMMUNICATION

NON-VERBAL

VERBAL

 

Space

Environment

Appearance

 

Eye contact

 

Posture

Gesture

Facial expression

 

Timing

 

Vocal clues

Reflect Repeat assertive msg Point out implicit assumptions Restate msg w/ assertion Question

MOTIVATION THEORIES

  • 1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

  • 2. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning & Behavior Modification

  • 3. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory

  • 4. Vroom’s Expectancy Model

  • 5. McClelland’s Three Basic Needs in Motivation

Achievement, Affiliation & Power

  • 6. Gellerman’s Humanistic Motivational Theory

Stretching & participation; managers tend to “overmanage”

TIME MANAGEMENT

Making optimal use of time 3 basic steps

  • 1. Allow time for planning & establish priorities

  • 2. Complete highest priority and finish one at a time

  • 3. Reprioritize based on remaining task & new info received

5 Priority-setting Traps

. Whatever hits first . Path of least resistance . Squeaky wheel . Managing by default . Waiting for inspiration

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

Too little conflict

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

Categories

Intraperson al Interperson al Intergroup

Process

Latent Perceived Felt Manifest

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

Compromising Competing Cooperating Smoothing Avoiding Collaborating

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

NEGOTIATION – collaboration/competition

Before

Be prepared mentally by having done homework

Determine starting point, trade-offs, & bottom line

Look for agendas, both own and that of the party

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

During

Maintain composure

Role model good communication skills, assertiveness & flexibility

Avoid using destructive techniques but be ready to counter

After

Restate what has been agreed upon, verbal and written

Recognize & thank all participants

THANK

YOU!