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# CCB/CBB 3033

PROCESSES /
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
5. Energy Transport
Lesson 15. Introduction

Course Outcomes
CLO Explain the theoretical aspect of
1
momentum,
mass
and
energy
transport
CLO Apply
mathematical
and
numerical
2
methodology in analyzing momentum
transfer problem
CLO Apply
mathematical
and
numerical
3
methodology in analyzing heat transfer
problem
CLO Apply
mathematical
and
numerical
4
methodology in analyzing mass transfer
problem
CLO Analyze and solve transport phenomena
5
using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

Semester May
2013

Lesson outcomes
16. Explain the principles of heat transfer
Explain Fouriers law of heat conduction
Estimate thermal conductivity
Explain Convective Energy Flux
Explain Molecular Work Flux
Explain the combined energy Flux

## Principles of Energy Transport

Energy an be transmitted by
Conduction
Convection
Conduction :- Molecular energy transport due
to the motion of the constituent molecules.
Convection :- Energy transport due to the bulk
motion of the fluid and depends on the
density of the fluid.
Radiation :- Unlike conduction and convection
does not require material medium to be
transmitted.
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## Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction

It is found that for sufficiently
small values of T the following
relation holds:

Q
T
k
A

## The rate of heat flow per unit area is

proportional to the temperature
decrease over the distance

parallel plates
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## Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction

In differential form
q y k

dT
dy

## One- dimensional form of the

Fouriers Law of Heat conduction

## Fouriers Law of Heat conduction :- The heat flux by conduction is

proportional to the temperature gradient.
If the temperature varies in all three directions in Cartesian coordinate:

T
q x k
x

q y k

T
y

T
qz k
z

T
T
T

q k
x
y
z kT
y
z
x

Three- dimensional
form of the Fouriers
Law.
6

In cylindrical coordinates:

T
qr k
r

1 T
q k
r

T
qz k
z

## Estimation of Thermal Conductivity

When thermal conductivity data for
a particular compound cannot be
found an estimate by can be made
using the corresponding state
principle.

## Estimation of Thermal Conductivity

Procedure
When k1 is known at some T1 and P1 and k at some other
temperature T and pressure P is required.
1.

## Determine kr1 from Tr1, Pr1

2.

Determine kc
kc

k1
k r1

3.

k Tk,c kPr
Determine kr from
r
r

4.

Determine k
9

## Estimation of Thermal Conductivity

Second approach/ using low density region
The Chapman-Enskog formula for the
thermal conductivity of a monoatomic gas
at low density and temperature T
kc 1.989110

T /M
2 k

k [=] cal/cm.s.K
T [=] K
[=]
k (collision integral for thermal
conductivity)dimensionless

10

## Estimation of Thermal Conductivity

Example
Compute the thermal conductivity of Ne at 1 atm and
373.2K.
Solution
From Table E.1 the Lennard-Jones constant for Ne are
=2.789 and \ = 35.7K its molecular weight is 20.18.
At T=373.2K T/ = 373.2/35.7 = 10.45
From Table E.2
k = y=0.821
(373.2) /(20.18)
4
k (1.989110 )

1
.
338

10
cal/cm.s.K
2
( 2.789) (0.821)
4

11

## Estimation of Thermal Conductivity

Thermal diffusivity:- In addition to thermal conductivity
thermal diffusivity is also commonly used.

k
C p

## The Prandtl Number (Pr) is used to measure the relative ease

of momentum and energy transport in flow systems.
C p
Pr

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## Convective Energy Transport

Convective Energy Transport :- Energy transport
due to the bulk motion of the fluid.
The convective energy flux through a surface area
perpendicular to:
x : ( 1 v 2 U )v x
2

1
2

y:

( 12 v 2 U )v y

z:

( 12 v 2 U )v z

## v 2 12 (v x2 v y2 v z2 ) Kinetic energy per unit volume

U : Internal energy per unit volume

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## Work Associated With Molecular Transport

The rate of work per unit area due to molecular stress, , can
be expressed as follows:
( x v) xx v x xy v y xz v z
( y v) yx v x yy v y yz v z
( z v) zx v x zy v y zz v z

The total molecular stress can be split into two parts as follows:
p

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## Combined energy flux vector

The combined energy flux is the sum of the
(a) the rate of heat transport per unit area by molecular
mechanism
(b)

## convective energy flux

(c)
rate of doing work per unit area by molecular
mechanism
e q ( 12 v 2 U )v [ v]

## Splitting the molecular stress we get p

e q ( 12 v 2 H )v [ v]
H U pV enthalpy
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## Combined energy flux vector

e q ( 12 v 2 U )v [ v]
q ( 12 v 2 U )v [ p v v]
q ( 12 v 2 U p )v [v]

mU
q ( v
p )v [v]
V
1
2

m pV
q ( v (U
)v [v]
V
m
m
1
2
q ( 2 v (U pV )v [v] V Specific volume
V
1
2

e q ( 12 v 2 H )v [v]
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Lesson outcomes
Explain the principles of Energy Transport
Explain Fouriers law of heat conduction
Estimate thermal conductivity
Explain Convective Energy Flux
Explain Molecular Work Flux
Explain the combined energy Flux

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