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grdg

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- 2010-01-27 Section Engine
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Sie sind auf Seite 1von 93

With Credit to Dr. H. Sevim for Original Book

System

Usually means production

can also involve figuring acceptable stopping

distances - number of levels to be served under

what conditions

tons of coal from a single level. The hoisting

distance from loading pocket to dump bin is

1000 ft. The mine operates 250 days per year

3 production shifts per day with 7 hours of

operation each production shift. The peak

production will be about 5000 tons per shift.

The average production is 4000 tons per shift.

3

decide to accept it

Mine.

requirement.

The fundamental Capacity Equation is

Q=P/T

Q is requirement in Tons Per Hour

P is Production per shift

T is the average shift production time

4

We Use?

average number

If we design on average then all the numbers

above the mean will go past capacity - well

loose our high values and not meet

production

If we design on a peak that is seldom

achieved well pay big bucks

5

Decision Criteria

consider cost of work stoppage vs. take work

stoppages

If peak is somewhat close to average then

design for the peak

In example the peak is 125% of the average,

which is not considered a significant

deviation. Design for the Peak!

6

Kind?

May be cost of lost production

May include penalties on contracts

May include idle labor cost

increment of production capacity

Check multiple points and go for minimum

total cost.

Apply formula

714 tph = 5000 t/shift / 7 hours prod time

Is this a Keope or a Drum Hoist?

One Level so Keope wont be too tricky

Production Rate Target

My Spreadsheet is

Opti-Hoist.

Cycle time elements

Elements

open and drop a load into the skip?

Once the Skip is in position how long will it take

to deposit the load into the dump point chute?

About 8 seconds to load

10 seconds to dump is reasonable

Your load and unload times may depend on other

design elements of the system.

10

Creep Time

stop as they line up with a set level

Pull away fromthe loading point

Or line up with dump point

Will Usually take a bit more time to

line up with the unload point

2 seconds to pull away from load and

4 to line up with dump is reasonable.

A fowl Beast

11

Speed and a Rate of Skip

Acceleration

The maximum speed we lift at is safety related. For men there are regulations.

For materials there are guidelines (shown in pink)

12

Considerations

The rope is just sitting over a friction wheel

If I peel out and the rope starts to slip I have

a major hoisting accident

production

But they also cause a big increase in motor size

and energy bill.

13

and particularly modest

acceleration

14

Geometry Considerations

Two Skips

15

Stopping Considerations

Loading chute

If my controls miss

Stopping the skip at

The dump point how

Far do I have for an

Emergency stop before

The over-wiend turns

Into a disaster?

Dump

Chute

Shaft Bottom

16

Using a Nordberg approximation of the cycle time the program estimates the size

Of skip that will be needed to achieve the production target using the distance,

Speed and acceleration conditions specified.

(This part of the spreadsheet is independent of whether the hoist was a Keope or

A drum hoist).

17

Exact Cycle Time

The only missing

Piece of information

Was what is the

Creep speed (2 ft/sec

Is reasonable).

Global warming initiative)

18

Weight, Rope Diameters and

Wheel Sizes

19

We have already been given a first guess skip size. We try about that size

And then check the actual hourly production achievable in the red box (we

Now have figured the exact cycle time too).

As can be seen a 16 ton skip will get me my 720 tons/hour.

20

In general a skip heavy enough to handle the banging of ore loading and

Unloading will weight about 75% of the load weight.

Opti-Hoist estimates this for us but leaves us a yellow blank to choose the

Weight. A higher weight usually means we are just adding weights to our

Skip.

21

Keope hoists usually have multiple ropes in even numbers, 2, 4, 6, and 8 being

Common. Where that 12 came from is unsure.

We need to consider both hoisting ropes and tail ropes. Sometimes tail ropes

Are used and worn-out hoist ropes which can cause tail ropes to be the same

As hoist ropes.

22

(This is a relatively modest depth)

The red box estimates that I will need a 1.064 inch rope to reach needed

Safety factors for this depth.

23

Enter My Rope Properties

I enter my rope size, its weight and its strength. (I have the advantage of

Having an estimate of what size rope to try).

The spreadsheet then compares the achieved factor of safety to what is required

24

Properties

The spreadsheet has a

Rope properties table

Right below for me to

Look things up on.

Flattened strand

I go for 1.125

Weight 2.28 lbs/ft

Strength 57.9 tons

25

Factor of Safety

26

with a 1 inch rope

27

Steal?

28

now pick the Wheel for My Hoist

Frame

Sharp. (You can see why I wanted a smaller rope it would have allowed me

To use a smaller lower inertia wheel).

29

Rope

Simple case is to get used rope

Also easiest to have just one tail rope so

have less swinging and tangling.

Number of tail ropes is commonly less than

number of hoist ropes.

30

Using my worn-out hoist ropes

for tail ropes.

31

Keope Wheel

T1 is the weight of the heavy loaded side. T2 is the weight of the lighter empty

Side.

Remember only friction stops the rope from slipping. The ratio of T1 to T2

Must therefor not be more than 1.5

Of course 1.95 is greater than 1.5 so life is sucking right now.

32

Pressure

Keope wheels are normally lined with a leather like frictional material. Since we

Dont want the ropes to cut the material to pieces we need to limit the load to

About 300 psi or less.

Well at least one thing worked.

33

So What Do I Do Now

I could look at rope weight but the rope weight

shifts back and forth from T1 to T2 depending on

where we are

The T1 and T2 ratios are picked by the spreadsheet to be

worst case

But a light duty skip could get beat to pieces

And a lighter skip would also reduce T2

34

Idea

account for a higher percentage of the weight.

Since skips are the for T1 and T2 making it a

larger proportion will even the ratio

(I could make a similar argument for picking

heavier ropes but ropes are expensive and big

ropes for larger higher inertia wheels).

35

My skips made it more even

Of course Im still not there yet.

36

tons to the skip did it!!!

37

Pressure

I cant change my T1 and T2

But I can spread the load over a greater area

Keope wheel

38

the Load

39

Factor of Safety Sucks Too

How profound I put more weight on the rope without strengthening the rope

And I get into safety factor trouble.

(Where the

Money Goes)

40

and Put A Little More On the

Rope

41

42

Initial acceleration - time it starts to move but its by the loading pocket so we dont

floor it

Creep 1 - carefully creeps past the loading

area to avoid tearing something up

Main acceleration - after clear of loading area

- hit it up to full speed

43

44

enough to the top that youd better slow down

or you'll put the skip up someplace interesting

Main Deceleration - slow down to creep

speed before you take out the dump bin

Creep 2 - move slowly into dump position

Final Deceleration - stop to dump

45

Required horsepower for motor varies

greatly through hoisting cycle

Adjustments are made by calculating the

Root Mean Squared (RMS) Horsepower

requirements

This requires taking horsepower duties at

multiple points through the hoisting cycle

46

Calculations

The Motor Sizing is

A function of something

Called EEW what is

that.?

47

Hoist contains motors, gears, and large

wheels that contribute inertia to the system

during acceleration

Could go through long hand and calculate

inertia of everything (if youre sadistic

enough)

Alternative is to use manufactures tables that

reduce inertia to an equivalent load on a rope.

48

Weight Chart

49

We know it is

A Keope hoist

So I will use

The Keope line.

I know I have

A 10ft wheel

So I start at

10 and read up

To the Keope

Line

50

Equivalent Effective Weight

Ill be conservative

In my reading and

Call it 36,000 lbs

51

Sizing

Of course understanding

What all these HP1, HPA

And TSL stuff is would

Add a lot of understanding

52

Keope Hoist Over Time Looks

Like This

Keope Hoist

53

Cycles

Hoist Duty Cycle

lift the skip load up the shaft as it travels at full steady speed.

54

Q - Why is there a sloped line leading upward from when the hoist starts

A - When the hoist is operating at less than full speed the load is

transported a lesser distance per unit time and thus the energy output per

unit time is less. The line has a linear slope because the acceleration rate is

55

a constant.

Q - Why is there a peak that drops sharply to the flat line for

Horsepower to run the Keope

A - You must add additional force to accelerate the load. At the end

of the acceleration period the additional force is no longer needed.

56

Q - Why is there a big drop in horsepower at the end of the full speed run

for the hoist

A - When the hoist decelerates, the momentum of the load provides part of

the energy to keep the load moving up the shaft.

57

Keope Cycles

Q - Why does the line slope down at the end of the Hoist

Cycle

58

energy per unit of time.

Keope Cycles

Q- Why the funny dashed lines that show more power

being used at the start and less being recovered at the end.

A - Frictional losses

59

Horsepower Requirements

requirements

HP1 will be the horsepower to accelerate the load

HP3 will be the horsepower to move the load at full speed up

the shaft

HP2 will be the horsepower recovered from momentum when

the load is decelerated

HP6 will be the horsepower still required to lift the load after

deceleration starts

HP4 and HP5 will cover frictional losses

Keope Hoist

60

Calculated.

61

Hoists)

V is the Velocity

g is the acceleration of gravity

Ta is the acceleration time to get the hoist to full

speed and includes time to accelerate to creep speed

(initial acceleration t1) and then to accelerate to full

speed (t3)

Ta = t1 + t3

Keope Hoist

62

Rope Weight (both sides)

SL and SW are the skip weight and load in tons

R is the rope weight

Because of tail rope there is a full length of rope on

both skip sides

Keope Hoist

63

Loaded Skip at Full Speed

Note that the skip weight term is missing

I have a skip going down to balance a skip

coming up

Keope Hoist

64

Horsepower #2 - Negative

Horsepower from Momentum

During Deceleration

2

Keope Hoist

65

and Drives

Derived empirically rather than by physics

fundamentals

HP4 = 0.111 * (2000 * SL * V / 550)

Keope Hoist

66

Continued

of horsepower to get the horsepower needs at

various cardinal points during the lift

We will label these cardinal points A through E

Example D is the peak power required at the height of

the acceleration phase

points into the RMS horsepower equation and use

that to size the motor.

Keope Hoist

67

Calculate Horsepower at 3

Cardinal Points

HPA = HP1 + HP3 + HP4

Point B - During Full Speed Run

HPB = HP3 + HP4

Point C - At Initiation of Deceleration

HPC = HP2 + HP3 + HP4

Keope Hoist

68

69

These Big Motors have an Armature to Sink

a Battleship! - takes a lot of inertia to spin

the thing up or down

HP5 (to spin it up) = 0.75 * HPA * 1.2 / Ta

Keope Hoist

70

71

Armature Acceleration

Point D is the revision of A peak of

acceleration

HPD = HPA + HP5

Deceleration

HPE = HPC + HP6

Keope Hoist

72

73

Motor Type

For AC Motor

HPrms = [ ( HPD2 * Ta + HPB2* Tfs + HPE2* Tr)/

( 0.5 * Ta + Tsf + 0.5 * Tr + 0.25 * tr) ]0.5

Where

Ta is acceleration time

Tsf is full speed time

Tr is deceleration time

tr is the rest time

Keope Hoist

74

Numerator is the same as AC

Denominator is changed to

( 0.75 * Ta + Tsf + 0.75 * Tr + 0.5 *tr)

RMS HP DC = [ Numerator/

Denominator]0.5

75

HP

76

I need to choose the number and size of motor and the inertia of the rotor

77

Consider Picks

With a 10 ft diameter Keope wheel Ill still need gear reduction so I would

Only get about 94% transmission My pick a 1250 two pole AC

78

and Gear Reduction Efficiency

(Note that there are limits to how much you can turn down the speed of

A motor with variable frequency drives)

79

80

Brake

Hold the maximum possible ubalanced load

with a 1.5 factor of safety

If a full speed load passes the ore dump

speed it must perform an emergency stop

before the skip crashes into the top of the

headframe.

81

Braking System

During Clutching Operations the Brake must hold the

load so it doesn't go to the shaft bottom

Design practice is to rate the brake and clutch to hold

the maximum load plus 50%

BR = CR = (D/2) * ( 2000*SL + 2000*SW + H * Wr *

n) * (1.5) {Units are ft-lbs}

BR and CR are Brake and Clutch Ratings in ft*lbs torque

Note this is the load on one side of a drum hoist if the other is

clutched

82

Calculation

83

Mass of the rotor came from the motor specification list

The gear ratio and speed were worked to get a workable

Ratio and a motor speed that was within the turn-down

Limit for the motor.

84

Performance During an

Emergency

Stop

Design is done on worst case scenario

maximum unbalanced load traveling at full speed

discovered with a minimum tolerance distance

before you ride into the head frame or crash into the

bottom

brake can stop in or size up the brake for the

tolerance you have.

85

Design Concept

maximum unbalanced load

Subtract unbalanced load from brake capacity

This leaves the net force available for the emergency

stop

Know the net force available

Know total mass in motion

Solve for the deceleration rate

86

Formula

W = (T1 - T2) * 2000

T1 = Max load = SL + SW + (H * Wr * n/2000)

T2 = Min Balancing Load = SW

87

Formula to Get the Differential

Weight.

88

the load must be in mass

Means we must use slugs - some how a system made by Kings using slugs

sounds wrong

+ T2 * 2000 ] / 32.2

WR2m is the inertia of the motor rotor in ft 2

GR is the gear ratio of the motor to the drive

Note that the R2 terms are needed to convert rotating inertia to equivalent

mass

89

DR = ( B - W ) / M

DR = Deceleration Rate

M = Mass to be stopped

W = Net unbalanced load (T1 - T2) * 2000

B = Brake Rating in lbs linear force

Get B = BR / R

BR is the Brake Rating in Ft*lbs

Time to Stop = T = V / DR

Braking Distance = S = (V/2) * T

sure you have the distance

90

GR = VM / VD

VM is rpm of motor at rated travel speed

VD is rpm of Drum

Keope Hoist

91

Stopped

Keope Hoist

92

Distance

Yup We Appear to Be OK

93

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