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HVAC FUNDAMENTALS
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HVAC Presentation

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What is a HVAC system ?


HVAC is an acronym for Heating, Ventilation and Air
Conditioning.
HVAC is a historical term that is commonly known today as
air conditioning.
A HVAC system maintains and controls the conditions of
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sans environment.
the
inside
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HVAC
system
delivers comfort, health and well being in the
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workplace
or home,or controls conditions for
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manufacturing
and industrial processes.
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A HVAC system comprises air conditioning plant, air and water


reticulation, and controls.

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HVAC Presentation

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What affects a HVAC system design ?


HVAC systems are designed to overcome the outside environment
and building design.
HVAC systems are designed to maintain comfort conditions for
the building occupants.
HVAC systems are designed to maintain stringent conditions for
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industrial
processes.
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HVAC
systems are designed to meet energy costs and reliability
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from an owners point of view.
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HVAC Presentation

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What are the main processes carried out by a


HVAC system ?
Ventilation - the process of exchanging air between the
outdoors and the conditioned space.
Air movement - the process of circulating and mixing air
through conditioned spaces.
Cleaning - the process of removing particles and biological
contaminants in the air.
Heating
- the process of adding thermal energy (heat) to the air
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in
the conditioned
space.
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Cooling
- the
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italic process of removing thermal energy (heat) from
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conditioned space.
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Humidifying
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the
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Dehumidifying - the process of removing water vapor
(moisture) from the air.

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HVAC Presentation

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Refrigeration Process

Refrigeration is the process of removing heat at a low


temperature level & rejecting it at a relatively higher
temperature level.

Refrigerant is nothing but heat carrier i.e. heat carrying


medium.
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HVAC Presentation

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Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle


High Pressure/
High Temp
Hot Gas Line

Compressor

Cold Gas
Line
Low Pressure/
Low Temp

Condenser

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Evaporator
Heat
Absorbed

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High Pressure/
Low Temp

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Cold Liquid Line

Expansion
Device

Heat
Rejected

Cold Liquid Line


Low Pressure/
Low Temp

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Types of Systems

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Direct Expansion (DX System).

1. Window Airconditioner
2. Split Units.
3. Packaged Unit.

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Chilled Water System (DW System)

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Unitary Air Conditioning Units. (Package


Units.DX System)
Unitary A/C units are self contained with
fan, refrigeration compressor, condenser,
etc.
Individual room units are designed to fit
inwindows or a wall mounted consoles.
Split systems are where the fan and coil
are mounted inside and the condensing
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is mounted
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Vertical
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contained
air conditioners are
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mounted
external
and
air is ducted to the
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room.

Outside air

Room air

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Roof top units are weatherproof units and


the air is ducted to the space below.

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Window Unit.
1. Outside air
4. Return air
6. Evaporator
9. Exp. valve
12.Grille
14. Casing

HVAC Presentation

2. Exhaust air 3. Supply


5.Outside & room fans
7.Compressor 8. Condens
10.Refrig. Pipe 11. Air filter
13.Condensate collector
15. Window
15. Room

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Unitary AC Units. (Split systems. DX System)


As the name implies, the air conditioner is
split into two parts, refrigeration and
ventilating parts.
The refrigeration part consists of a
compressor and an air cooled condenser.
The ventilating part consists of a fan and
an evaporator to cool or heat the air.
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Thesiemens
condensing
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unit is mounted outside
which
assists
heat dissipation
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noise
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the room.
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The fan coil unit can be mounted in the


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room or in a remote position with duct to
the room.

Split System.
1. Outside air
2. Exhaust air 3. Supply
air 4. Return air 5. Room 6. Evaporator
7.Compressor
8. Condenser 9. Exp.
valve 10.Refrigerant pipe 11. Condensing
unit. 12.Fan coil unit. 13.Ventilation grid
14. Filter

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DX System

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In-Direct System

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Sample Screens - Water Cooled Chiller

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Sample Screens-Air Cooled Chillers

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Sample Screens- Chillers

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Sample Screens- Cooling Tower

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Sample Screens-Basic AHU

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Sample Screens-Basic AHU

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Sample Screens-Treated Fresh Air Unit

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HVAC Presentation

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All - Water Systems. ( 2-pipe fan coil unit


system.)
Two water pipes are led to each fan coil unit,
cold water is pumped in summer,
hot water in winter.
Thus only cold water or hot water is available at the
fan coil units at any one time.
It is not possible to cool a room and
simultaneously heat an adjacent room on
the
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water zone.
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This
system
is bold
most successful in
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summer
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winter when the outside
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conditions
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steady
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bold and predictable.

1.
2.
3.
4.
6.

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This
system
is less successful in
spring
when low ambient
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temperature and solar loads require zones to
need cold water and others to need hot water.

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Hot or cold water flow.


Hot or cold water return.
Fan coil units with one coil.
Different rooms. 5. Supply air.
Boiler.
7. Chiller.

HVAC Presentation

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VAVs & CAVs

CON
STAN
UNIT
T AIR
S
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L
B
IA
R
VA

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M
U
VOVLOL
U
R
ME
I
A
E

S
T
I
N
U
E

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Characteristics of VAV
Air distribution equipment
Mainly used in buildings where single AHU serves many
areas
Optimizes power consumption while maintaining
thermal comfort
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Ideally
suited
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bold for varying load patterns
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Full
cooling
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full heating take place about 20 % of the
time.
of the time systems operate at less than full
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capacity.
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The VAV box adjusts the amount of air that enters the
space or room to maintain temperature
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Ventilation & Air-conditioning System Air only systems


Variable air Volume System

5
2

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7
4
3

9
Fig. 57

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Control of individual room temperature

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Types of VAVs
Shut-off type VAVs
Pressure Controller
Pressure Sensor

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Types of VAVs
VAV with volumetric flow control
Variable Frequency Drive

Pressure Controller

Pressure Sensor

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Types of VAVs

By - pass type VAV


To False ceiling

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From
AHU
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To conditioned Space

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Sample Screens-Exhaust Fans

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HVAC system in a building

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THANK YOU

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HVAC Presentation

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