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Applications of

High Temperature Superconductivity


in Electrical Power Devices:
the Southampton perspective

Professor J.K. Sykulski, FIEE, SMIEEE, FInstP


School of Electronics & Computer Science
University of Southampton, UK
University
of Southampton

Superconductivity UK, 23 October 2003

Applications of HTS
(High Temperature Superconductivity)
ceramic materials discovered in 1986
conductivity 106 better than copper
operate at liquid nitrogen temperature (78K)
cheap technology (often compared to water cooling)
current density 10 times larger than in copper
windings
great potential in electric power applications
(generators, motors, fault current limiters,
transformers, flywheels, cables, etc.),
as losses are significantly reduced
present a modelling challenge because of very highly
non-linear characteristics and anisotropic properties
of materials, and due to unconventional designs

HTS transformer
built and tested at Southampton 1998/99

HTS transformer
built and tested at Southampton 1998/99

HTS transformer
built and tested at Southampton 1998/99
Cooling
Coil

Current Leeds

Conduction
paths

Thermal
Insulation

V
acuumSpace

Vapour

Liquid

V
acuumSpace

Thermal
Insulation

HTS transformer
built and tested at Southampton 1998/99

Field plots with and without flux diverters

HTS transformer
built and tested at Southampton 1998/99
11
Measured (no Flux Diverters)

10

Calculated (no Flux Diverters)

Calculated (with Flux Diverters)

Measured (with Flux Diverters)

Loss (W)

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

10

20

30

40

Secondary Current (A)

50

60

Diffusion of current density into HTS tape

Field and current


penetration
in
HTS tape
y

HTS tape

Flow of transport current


through an HTS tape

AC loss as a function of
average current density

HTS tape subjected to an external magnetic field

Rhyner model:

The critical current density Jc corresponds to an electric field Ec of 100 Vm1, and c = Ec/Jc.
The power law contains the linear and critical state extremes ( = 1 and respectively).
In practice 10 - 20 and thus the system is very non-linear.

HTS tape subjected to an external magnetic field


E E

The governing equation:


2 0 c E
2
t
x
y
2

The FD scheme:

where
Cij =

and

R=x/y

1
1

HTS tape subjected to an external magnetic field

AC loss as a function of Hm (applied peak magnetic field strength)

Field
angle

0o

Current

45o

90o

Electric
field

Experimental verification

Superconducting generators and motors

Why ?

Superconducting generators and motors

Losses in conventional and superconducting designs

Superconducting generators and motors


LTS (Low Temperature Superconductivity) has not been
successful in electric power applications
low reliability
high cost
difficult technology

Impact of HTS (High Temperature Superconductivity)


better thermal stability
cheaper cooling
improved reliability

Superconducting generators and motors


All conceptual HTS designs and small demonstartors use
BSCCO tapes at temperatures between 20K and 30K
at 30K critical fields and currents order of magnitude better
than at 78K
it is possible to have a core-less design

But !!!
liquid neon or helium gas needed
increased cost and complexity of refrigeration plant
reduced thermodynamic efficiency
worse reliability and higher maintenance requirements

Superconducting generators and motors


Southampton design
100 kVA, 2 pole
cooling at 78 / 81 / 65 / 57 K
(liquid nitrogen or air / sub-cooled nitrogen or air)
magnetic core rotor design
- reduces the ampere-turns required by a factor of ten
- significantly reduces fields in the coils
rotor made of cryogenic steel (9%)
10 identical pancake coils made of BSCCO
(Ag clad Bi-2223), length of wire approx 10 x 40m

Machine Design
Stator
An existing 100kVA stator with 48 slots and
a balanced 2-pole 3-phase winding has
been used
The pitch of the stator coils ensures that the
winding produces very little 7th harmonic field
Higher order fields are reduced significantly
by the distribution of the phase conductors
throughout each phase belt
The primary concern is the 5th harmonic

Machine Design
Rotor and field winding
The rotor is made of 9%
nickel steel
The core is formed by
thirteen plates of various
shapes and sizes
The HTS rotor winding is
made of silver clad BSCCO2223 tapes
10 identical coils and each
coil has 40 turns

Nominal critical current of >100A at 77K self-field


Each superconducting coil is separated by the flux diverters
The required low temperatures are provided using purpose built
closed circuit liquid cryogen cooling system with pipe-network
feeding liquid cryogen to the rotor body

Machine Design

Machine Design

Machine Design

2D Modelling and Analysis


In early designs the rotor was made of Invar, but this was rejected due to large difference in thermal
expansion coefficient
- Difficult to connect to stainless steel shaft
After thorough investigation, it was decided to use 9% Nickel steel
The 9% Nickel steel is usually produced in plates
- Each plate is 22 mm thick
- Various shapes and sizes

Rotor with Invar design

Rotor with 9% Nickel steel design

2D Modelling and Analysis


The latest design changes:
The HTS coils was reduced to 10 instead of 12 in previous design
Each coil has 40 turns
The plates were made from different thickness

2D Modelling and Analysis


The distribution of the normal field
in the HTS coils and the flux
potential plot. The flux diverters
successfully reduced the normal
field to only 0.038T with the air-gap
flux at 0.66T.

2D Modelling and Analysis


Flux density (T)

Harmonic components of air gap flux and phase voltage


Space
harmonic
order
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19

Sine harmonic
magnitude

Winding
factor

Actual
harmonic

0.582820
-0.008890
-0.004000
-0.042090
-0.027489
0.030100
-0.006358

0.758138
0.081732
-0.038555
-0.002635
-0.023096
0.005246
-0.003893

0.441858
0.002180
0.000771
0.000776
0.005714
0.001737
0.000322

% Harmonic
voltage
contribution
100%
0.49%
0.17%
0.18%
1.29%
0.39%
0.07%

0.006127
-0.005550
-0.001332

0.009260
0.000535
0.003444

0.000851
0.000050
0.000087

0.19%
0.01%
0.02%

Angle (deg)

Gap field up to 19th order

3D modelling?
2D modelling prevents some important features from being investigated:
The effect of the through bolts and their holes.
The leakage flux at the ends of the rotor.

3D Modelling and Analysis

Rotor
Flux
Diverters
HTS field
winding
Stator
Stator
winding

3D Modelling and Analysis

3D Modelling and Analysis

The flux density vectors and its distribution

3D Modelling and Analysis


The field over a patch of 180 degree arc and 200mm length at 160mm
radius is analysed to extract the harmonics of the air gap flux density

3D Modelling and Analysis


Space
harmonic
order
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19

Sine Harmonic
magnitude

Winding
factor

Actual
harmonic

0.607658
-0.008897
-0.034999
-0.044628
-0.013164
0.032844
-0.007908
0.003801
-0.008446
-0.002175

0.758138
0.081732
-0.038555
-0.002635
-0.023096
0.005246
-0.003893
0.009260
0.000535
0.003444

0.460689
0.002181
0.006747
0.000823
0.002736
0.001895
0.000400
0.000528
0.000077
0.000142

% harmonic
voltage
contribution
100%
0.47%
1.46%
0.18%
0.59%
0.41%
0.09%
0.11%
0.02%
0.03%

5th harmonic voltage causes


the most significant problem
The undesirable 5th
harmonic voltage is higher
than predicted in 2D
Total rms harmonic voltage
in the 3D model increases
from 1.47% to 1.716%
Require further 3D
optimisation!

Flux density (T)

Angle (deg)

Field Optimisation
To reduce the 5th harmonic, the gap density is reduced at an angle where the 5th harmonic
contribution is positive.

Two methods: (1) Sink the bolts deeper into the core.
(2) Reduce the width as shown in the diagram.

The
total rms
harmonic
voltage improved
fromslight
1.46%
However
mechanical
constraint
allowed only
to
1.35% and the 5th harmonic reduced to 0.55%.
improvement.

Modelling of Eddy-Current Loss


Two type of losses:

No-load tooth ripple losses due to the distortion of the


fundamental flux density wave by the stator slotting.
Full transient non-linear rotating machine
Assumed fixed value of field current (as the cold copper
screen prevents changes
in reluctance and changes of stator MMF from affecting the value of field current)
Fixed rotation velocity of 3000 rpm

Full-load losses that include the effects of the MMF harmonics


of the stator winding.
Static and steady-state models
Transient solution too slow due to low resistance of the cold
copper the time constants are very long

Modelling of Eddy-Current Loss


No-load losses

Eddy currents occur as 48th time harmonic


Transient losses were estimated and subtracted
Total no-load loss found to be 0.264 W

Modelling of Eddy-Current Loss


Full-load losses

Dominating 5th harmonic (and much smaller 7th)


Losses due to 11th and higher harmonics negligible
Total full-load loss found to be 2.319 W

(a) DC field

(b) Additional 6th time harmonic field

Contours of vector potential: (a) Non-linear static model and (b) Linear AC model with
new current densities defined in each stator slot and incremental permeability data taken
from the static model.

Total power loss in the cold region is 2.583 W.

Summary of eddy current losses


No-load losses: 0.264 W
Full-load losses: 2.319 W
These losses are released at liquid nitrogen
temperature and have to be removed using the
inefficient refrigeration system
Each 1W of loss to be removed requires between
15 25 W of installed refrigeration power at 78K
(a similar figure at 4K would be about 1000 W)

Fault Condition Simulation


Full transient non-linear rotating machine model
Losses due to the transient were estimated using a rotating machine simulation
End winding leakage inductance was estimated and added
Fixed time step equivalent to a period for the rotor to pass one stator slot
Simulation was set to run for a period of 2.5 cycles (largest currents occur during this period)

External circuit is
connected to finite- element
model (to
simulate 3phase short circuit fault
condition)

Fault Condition Simulation


Results:
Currents in each phase are recorded from each output
High losses in the stator winding (cause large torque)
Peaks at approximately 1.7 MW
Gradually decrease to steady value as the trapped flux

time-step (curves fitted as shown)

decays

Fault Condition Simulation


Results:
Large current also
produce large torque
Speed reduces rapidly to 19.45% after 50
ms of simulation
Temperature increases to 103K

Conclusions
Increasing activity around the world in HTS
applications for power devices
All existing demonstrators use HTS tapes at
temperatures 20 to 30 K (helium or neon gas)
Southampton design for 78K
Parameters of new tapes improved dramatically
Ability to predict and reduce all cold losses
of paramount importance to show economic
advantages of HTS designs

Thank
you

University

of Southampton

Superconductivity UK, 23 October 2003