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The Height of poverty in urban areas has some what started

pestering in the present scenario.
Income generation in addressing urban poverty has long
been seen as critical by the govt.
Better housing and infrastructure services surely improve
health and reduce expenditure on home based employment.
Experiences to date have shown that for poverty related
interventions to be successful, they need to be both
affordable and inclusive of many different groups within
urban poor communities.
This quest for the Urban Poverty Alleviation brings rise to
some basic Urban poor Planning policies and poverty
alleviation programmes like RAYs IHUPs. And JNNURM etc.

Urban Poverty: The Context

Broad indications suggest that poverty in urban areas is

both increasing and changing in nature
The need for improvements is immense: in 1992, it was
estimated that some 5 -10 million urban dwellers
Newer groups who join the urban poor do have adequate
access to services
For most, housing , infrastructure and services remain
As a consequence of these past inadequacies and a present
lack of investment, most urban poor lack public provision in
the areas of water, sanitation, garbage collection and
comprehensive health and education services.

Outlook for poverty alleviation

Eradication of poverty in India is generally only considered to be a longterm goal.

Poverty alleviation is expected to make better progress in the next 50
years than in the past, as a trickle-down effect of the growing middle
Increasing stress on education, reservation of seats in government jobs
for economically weaker sections of society would surely contribute to the
alleviation of poor.
It is incorrect to say that all poverty reduction programmes have failed.
The growth of the middle class indicates that economic prosperity has
indeed been very impressive in India, but the distribution of wealth is not
at all even.

After the liberalization process and moving away from the socialist
model, India is adding 60 to 70 million people to its middle class
every year.

Housing and Urban Poor Planning Policy in India

First Five Year Plan(1951-56), the emphasis was given on

institution building and on construction of houses for Government
employees and weaker sections.
Second Plan(1956-61),The scope of housing programme for the
poor was expanded .. Three new schemes were introduced, namely,
Rural Housing, Slum Clearance and Sweepers Housing
Third Plan(1961-66), A Scheme was introduced in 1959 to give
loans to State Govts. for a period of 10 years for acquisition and
development of land in order to make available building sites for the
poor in sufficient numbers.
Fourth Plan(1969-74). A scheme with a view to provide a
minimum level of services, like, water supply, sewerage, drainage
was introduced
Fifth Plan(1974-79) The Urban Land (Ceiling & Regulation) Act
was enacted to prevent concentration of land holding in urban areas

Housing and Urban Poor

Planning Policy in India

Sixth Plan(1980-85) was on integrated provision of services along with


Seventh Plan(1985-90) The Seventh Plan explicitly recognised the

problems of the urban poor and for the first time an Urban Poverty
Alleviation Scheme known as Urban Basic Services for the Poor (UBSP)
was launched.

Eighth Plan(1992-97) for the first time explicitly recognized the role
and importance of urban sector for the national economy. It identified
issues like widening gap between demand and supply of infrastructural
services badly hitting the poor, whose access to the basic services like
drinking water, sanitation, education and basic health services is
shrinking. The response of the Plan to this scenario was the launching of
Urban Poverty and Alleviation Programme of Nehru Rojgar Yojana (NRY)




The Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty

Alleviation (MH&UPA) Government of India has
designed an Interest Subsidy Scheme as an
additional instrument for addressing the
housing needs of the EWS/LIG segments in
urban areas.
Purpose- The Scheme envisages the provision
of interest subsidy to EWS and LIG segments
,who do not have any pucca house in their
name ,to enable them to buy or construct

Eligibility - The economic parameter of EWS is defined as households
having an average monthly income upto Rs.3,300 and the economic
parameter of LIG is defined as households having an average monthly
income between Rs.3,301 upto Rs.7,300. This will be subject to
revision by the Steering Committee of the Scheme from time to time.

Loan amount admissible - The scheme will provide a subsidized

loan for 15 20 years for a maximum amount of Rs.1,00,000 for an
EWS individual for a house at least of 25 sq.mts. Additional loans, if
needed would be at unsubsidized rates.
Loan Limit - A maximum loan amount of Rs.1,60,000 for a LIG
individual for a house at least of 40 sq.mts will be admissible. However,
subsidy will be given for loan amount upto Rs. 1 lakh only. Additional
loans, if needed would be at unsubsidized rates.


Purpose-Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) for the slum dwellers and the urban
poor envisages a Slum-free India through encouraging States/Union
Territories to tackle the problem of slums in a definitive manner. It
calls for a multi-pronged approach focusing on:
Bringing existing slums within the formal system and enabling them
to avail of the same level of basic amenities as the rest of the town
Redressing the failures of the formal system that lie behind the
creation of slums
Tackling the shortages of urban land and housing that keep shelter
out of reach of the urban poor and force them to resort to extra-legal
solutions in a bid to retain their sources of livelihood and


Planning Methodology

The preparation of Slum-free City Plan will broadly involve

Slum Redevelopment/Rehabilitation Plans based on :


Survey of all slums notified and non-notified;

Mapping of slums using the state-of-art technology;
Integration of geo-spatial and socio-economic data;
Identification of development model proposed for
each slum
The following steps as shown in the diagram are followed
during the planning


The need for the Immidiete Poverty alleviation programmes has so

much created a revolution in todays scenario that the number of
slum dwellers are reducing day by day.
Thanks to the present state of art Urban Poor planning policies and
many schemes that such a feat has been achieved.
It requires a critical look at the Urban Planning policies and
mechanisms from the perspective of the poor.
The quest for more slum cutting is in the run.
For that it requires assessing the needs and aspirations of the
urban poor for bringing them into planning mechanisms.
It requires pro-poor planning and governance requires creation of
new institutional structures, new sectoral priorities and flexible
land use planning systems.
Thus duly considering the above policies , A slum free city is

Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation
Government of India
Interest Subsidy for Housing the Urban Poor - Guidelines
Rajiv Awas Yojana : Guidelines for Slum-free City Planning
Ministry of Urban Development-
Wikipedia -
Albee, A. & Gamage, N. (1996) Our Money; Our
Movement (London, IT Publications).
Patel, S. (1996) SPARC and its work with the National
Slum Dwellers Federation India
IIED Paper Series on Poverty Reduction in Urban Areas
(London, IIED).