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Session 1

Framework for financial statement analysis:


Statutory financial reports, disclosure quality,
sources of financial information, segment reporting
and analysis.
Case: Analysis of segment data for Lucent and Roche.

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Financial Statements Reflect Business


Activities

Financial
Statements

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Additional Information
(Beyond Financial Statements)
4

A.

B.
C.
D.

Managements Discussion &


Analysis (MD&A)
Auditor Report
Notes to Accounts
Supplementary Information

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Financial Statement
Analysis
1.

2.

Evaluation of risk and return (and


Growth) is the major objective of
financial statement analysis.
Evaluation, projection and estimation of
earnings is crucial for valuation.

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Cross-sectional analysis of
financial statement information
6

Financial statement data are often used in


a comparative mode i.e.
A.Cross-sectional applications:
comparison of one entity with other
entities at the same point in time.
B.Time series applications: comparison
of one entity at different points in time.

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Analysts point
7

Analysis of companies with more than


one line of business has inherent
difficulties as compared with the analysis
of companies engaged in a single
business.
Decision making for allocation of
resources in firms with multiple line of
business warrants detailed analysis of
business segments.
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Challenges of Diversified
Companies (DCs)
A.
B.

C.
D.

E.

DCs operate in multiple segments.


Each segment or division exhibit varying
rates of profitability, risk and growth
opportunities.
Varying asset composition and financing mix.
Interest groups wants to know segment that
is providing cash and using cash.
Research suggest that income forecasting
based on forecasting from segment income
is more rational and accurate.
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Rationale
9

Segment information helps users of financial statements:


(a) To better understand the performance of the enterprise;
(b) To better assess the risks and returns of the enterprise
(including growth); and
(c) To make more informed judgments about the enterprise
as a whole.

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10

A: Recognition of Reportable
Segments

IAS-14 does not require the reporting firm to provide information for every
business segment. Firms are required to present information for reportable
segments only. A business or geographical segment should be identified as a
reportable segment on the following basis:

Turnover- A Segment whose revenue is 10% or more of the total


revenue of all segments (i.e. external + internal before elimination
of intersegment sales).
2.Profit or Loss- Its segment result, whether profit or loss is 10% or
more of
a) the combined result of all segments in profit.
b) the combined result of all segments in loss
3.Assets-If segment assets are 10% or more of the assets of all
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segments taken together.
1.

Recognition of Reportable Segments


11

4. Opinion of the Management-The management may use


discretion in pointing out any segment as a reportable segment
irrespective of magnitude.
5. 75% of total enterprise revenue- If the external revenue
attributable to reportable segments constitutes less than 75%
of the total revenue of the enterprise, additional segments
should be identified as reportable segments, even if they do
not meet the 10% threshold in terms of revenue or assets or
result, until at least 75% of total enterprise revenue is
included in reportable segments.

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Implication
12

If a company derives 10% or more of


revenues from sales to a single
customer, revenues from this customer
must be reported. Note that name of the
major customer need not be disclosed,
only the amount of sales.

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Example: 1
The following is the detail of the Hypothetical Ltd.
All figures are in Rs. Crores.
Segments

Total
Total
Segment Enterprise

External sales

200

300

100

60

40

Internal sales

100

60

40

Total Revenue

300

360

140

60

40

900

700

80

-20

15

80

80

50

100

30

15

200

1. Segment revenue
700
200

2. Segment result
Profit/Loss
3. Segment assets
13

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Example-2
14

Refer the Excel Sheet: Analysis 2 and 2E

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Implication
15

A.

B.

A segment recognized as reportable


segment in the immediate preceding period
should continue to be a reportable segment
during the present reporting period even if
it does not meet the 10% criteria.
New segment reported in the current period
based on 10% criteria preceding year
segment information for the same must be
shown even if it does not fulfill 10% criteria.

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16

International Practice
(Disclosure)
IAS 14 stipulates that an enterprise should disclose the following
for each primary reportable segment
a. Segment revenue
b. Segment result
c. Total carrying amount of segment assets
d. Total amount of segment liabilities
e. Total capital expenditure incurred during the period
f. Depreciation and amortization in respect of segment assets.
g. Total amount of significant non-cash expenses, other than
depreciation and amortization.
h. Income Tax Expenses
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17

B:AS-17 on Segment
Accounting
Standard (AS)
17, Segment
Reporting
in
IndiaReporting, issued by the
Council of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, comes
into effect in respect of accounting periods commencing on or
after 1.4.2001.
This Standard is mandatory in nature in respect of accounting
periods commencing on or after 1-4-2004.
AS-17 mandates companies to provide some minimum segmental
information. This includes information relating to segmental
assets, liabilities, income, expenses, profits or losses and
accounting policies.

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Applicability of AS-17
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Comes into effect in 1.4.2001


Firms Debt or equity securities are listed
on a stock exchange in India.
Firms are in process of issuing equity or
debt securities that will be listed in any
recognized exchanges in India as
evidenced from board resolution.
All other commercial or business
enterprises whose turnover for the
accounting period exceeds Rs.50 Crore.
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Why Segment Reporting


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Information about different types of products, services, markets of


an enterprise and its operations in different geographical areas often called segment information - is relevant to assessing the risks
and returns of a diversified or multi-locational enterprise but may
not be determinable from the aggregated data.
Therefore, reporting of segment information is widely regarded as
necessary for meeting the needs of users of financial statements.

Note: Accounting Standards: IAS -14 , AS-17, IFRS 8 SFAS 131


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Why Segment Reporting


20

Part of the overall problem of external financial reporting for


diversified firms concerns the degree to which disclosure on a
segmented basis aids the financial analyst or investor in making
knowledgeable investment recommendations and financial
commitments.
Theoretically, segmented income statement and balance sheet data
should enable the analyst-investor to analyze more precisely the
component parts of the total firm and thereby evaluate the firm's
stock on a more rational basis.

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Why Segment Reporting


21

Pragmatically, financial analysts have argued that different


rates of growth, profitability, and risk among divisions of
diversified firms complicate the task of evaluating earnings
prospects and therefore necessitate the disclosure of sub-entity
information.
Segment information is helpful in evaluating the risks and
returns.

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Implication
22

Segmental reporting is a transition from quantitative to


qualitative disclosures. Revenues, expenses, profits, assets,
liabilities, cash flows, etc., classified by segments would help
investors and creditors to identify the major sources of
strengths of the firm and risk factors.
The increased reliability of the data reduces the riskperception levels and consequent risk premium expectations.

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Application
23

1.
2.
3.

This Statement should be applied in presenting general


purpose financial statements.
The requirements of this Statement are also applicable
in case of consolidated financial statements.
An enterprise should comply with the requirements of
this Statement fully and not selectively.

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Usefulness
24

First, if segmented financial reports enable the investor to


analyze more precisely the separate earnings prospects of
the conglomerate's component parts and thereby arrive at a
more informed approximation of future total firm income,
then current estimates of future earnings are more likely to
approximate actual results.
Second, if segmental disclosure does provide a more objective
basis for evaluating the future earnings performance of a
diversified firm and thereby currently valuing the firm's stock
in line with these expectations, then stock price fluctuations
due to investor ignorance should be lessened and therefore
price dispersion should be narrowed over time.'
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Usefulness
25

An initial proposition is that segmental disclosure contains


informational content for investors regarding future earnings
changes of a firm.
Under segment reporting, profitable or unprofitable divisions
can be examined individually, and a more informed decision
can be made regarding the future earnings performance of the
firm as a whole.

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Segment revenue
26

Segment revenue is the aggregate of


(i) the portion of enterprise revenue that is directly attributable to a
segment,
(ii) the relevant portion of enterprise revenue that can be allocated on a
reasonable basis to a segment, and
(iii) revenue from transactions with other segments of the enterprise.
Segment revenue does not include:
(a) extraordinary items as defined in AS 5, Net Profit or Loss for the
Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies;
(b) interest or dividend income, including interest earned on advances
or loans to other segments unless the operations of the segment are
primarily of a financial nature; and
(c) gains on sales of investments or on extinguishment of debt unless
the operations of the segment are primarily of a financial
nature.
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C: Types of segments
27

Accounting Standard (AS) 17 (issued 2000)-Segment Reporting


classifies segments into business segments and geographical
segments:
1. A business segment is a distinguishable component of an enterprise
that is engaged in providing an individual product or service or a
group of related products or services and that is subject to risks and
returns that are different from those of other business segments.
2. A geographical segment is a distinguishable component of an
enterprise that is engaged in providing products or services within a
particular economic environment and that is subject to risks and
returns that are different from those of components operating in
other economic environments.
Note: Line-of-business- approach
Note: IAS 14 also classifies segments into
Geographical segment.

(a) Business segment (b)

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Practice
28

Management judgment guided by factors


for reporting segments of business:
A.Products
B.Production Process
C.Markets or Marketing methods
Note: These guidelines led to a Line of
business approach to segment disclosure.
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1. Business Segment
29

Identification factors for business segment are:


A.
B.
C.
D.

E.

The nature of the products or services


Nature of the production processes
Type or class of customers for the products or services
Methods used to distribute the products or provide the
services
If applicable the nature of the regulatory environment, for
example, banking, insurance or public utilities.

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Implication
30

A business segment should not include products and services that


are significantly different from each other in terms of risks and
returns.
2.
Products and services that are similar in some respects but are
different with respect to several of the other factors should not be
included in the same segments.

For Example: risk and return of the shipping business of L& T


are different from its Engineering business.
Note: Application of the principles stipulated in IAS-14 is a matter of
judgment. For example , whether passenger car and commercial
vehicle are different in terms of risks and returns is a matter of
judgment.
1.

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31

2. Geographical Segment
(GS)
Economic environment in which the firm is operating is the
identifying basis. Factors that should be considered in
identifying geographical segments include:
Similarity of political and economic conditions
Relationships between operations in different geographical
areas
Proximity of operations
Special risks associated with operations in particular area.
The underlying currency risks

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Implication
32

1.

2.

3.

4.

GS should be based on either the location of production or


service facilities or the location of its customers.
One has to make a judgment on whether risks and returns for
the segment are different from others.
A geographical segment may be single country, a group of
two or more countries or a region within a country.
Usually a country is considered as a segment.

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Example: 3
33

Name of
the
Company

Annual
Report

Segments BS/GS

1. Reliance
Industries
Ltd.

20132014
pp.261262

BS: Petrochemicals, Refining, Oil and Gas,


Others (Textile, Retail Business, SEZ
Development, Telecom/Broadband business)
GS: within India, Outside India
Note: RIL reports the segments as Primary
and Secondary segment information

2. Infosys
Technologies
Ltd.

20132014
pp.97-98

BS: Financial Services and Insurance (FSI),


Manufacturing (MFG), Energy, Utilities,
Communication and services (ECS), Retail,
Consumer packaged goods, and Logistics
(RCL, Life sciences and Healthcare (LSH).
GS: North America, Europe, India, Rest of the
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World

Business Segments
34

NAME OF THE
COMPANY

BUSINESS SEGMENTS

1. Hindustan Unilever Soap and detergents, personal products,


Ltd.
beverages, foods, ice creams, exports and
others.
2. ITC Ltd.

FMCG, Cigarettes, hotels, agribusiness,


paperboards, paper and packaging.

3. Dr. Reddys Lab

Active pharmaceutical ingredients,


formulations, generics, critical care,
biotechnology

4. HDFC Ltd.

Housing finance, insurance, asset


management and others

5. Mahindra and
Mahindra

Automotive, farm equipment, IT services,


financial services
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Geographical Segments
35

Name of the Company

Geographic segments

1. Hindustan Unilever Ltd.

India, Outside India

2. Ranbaxy lab

India, Europe, Asia pacific, North


America, Rest of world

3. State Bank of India

Domestic operation and foreign


operation

4. Mahindra & Mahindra

Domestic and overseas

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D: Primary and Secondary Reporting Segments


36

Business and Geographic segment are classified as primary and


secondary reporting segment on the basis of risk and return
evaluation. (Example-RIL)
The dominant source of enterprises risk and return is identified as
primary segment. If the major sources of risk and returns are
products, the business segments are regarded as primary segments
and geographical segments as secondary segments and vice versa.
The standard recommends revenue, results and asset tests to
identify reportable segments and a firm can add more segments
until 75% of enterprise revenue test is fulfilled.
For each segment, segment asset, liabilities, revenue, expenses and
profits/losses are to be reported along with the segment-wise
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policies.

Reportable segments are categorized in the following two parts, for the purpose
of disclosure, namely, primary reportable segment and secondary reportable
segment.
Basis of Categorization of Reportable segments
Situations

Primary
reportable
segment

Provided that Risks and Returns of an enterprise are


primarily affected by variation in product/service

Business
Segment

In case risks and returns of an enterprise are


primarily affected by its operations in different
geographical locations
Supposing risks and returns of an enterprise are
mostly affected by both differences in
product/services it manufactures and its operations
37
in different geographical locations

Geographical
segment
Business
Segment
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Secondar
y
reportabl
e
segment
Geograph
ical
segment
is based
on the
location
of
customer
s
Business
Segment
Geograph
ical
segment

SEBI and AS 17
38

Listed companies must furnish segment


wise revenue, results and capital
employed along with the quarterly
unaudited financial results with effect
from quarters ending 30th September
2001.

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2. Hyderabad , R.L. and Kalyanshetti (2011), Segment Reporting


Practices in Indian IT Companies, The IUP Journal of Accounting
Research & Audit Practices, Vol. X, No. 3, 2011
39

The sample IT companies in the present case fare poorly in


providing segmental information. Only 11% of the sample
firms comply with the mandatory disclosure norms, which
include capital market icons like Infosys and Wipro.
Others are yet to view segment reporting seriously. For fear of
competitive disadvantage or so, the firms fare poorly even on
voluntary disclosures. Even bigger firms are hesitant to
disclose extra details relating to the segments.

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Implication
40

The study finds the Indian IT companies to identify a few segments


and business segment is the primary segment. Multiple-listed
companies identify more segments than single stock exchange
listed companies and revenue is the basic criteria used for
identifying reportable segments.
The sample firms score poorly in disclosing both mandatory and
voluntary information. Profitability, listing status, external
shareholding and proportion of independent directors positively
affect the reporting practices of IT companies in India.

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Analysis of segment data


41

Business
Segments

Infosys

TCS

WIPRO

1. Financial Services
and Insurance (FSI),
2. Manufacturing
(MFG),
3. Energy, Utilities,
Communication and
services (ECS),
4. Retail, Consumer
packaged goods,
Logistics (RCL)
5. Life sciences and
Healthcare (LSH).

1. Banking,
Financial
Services and
Insurance,
2. Manufacturing
,
3. Retail,
Consumer
packaged
goods
4. Telecom,
Media and
Entertainment
5. Others

1. IT Services:
BFSI,HLS,RCTG,E
NO,MFG,GMT
2. IT Products
3. Others

Geographi North America, Europe, India, America,


India, USA,
cSource: Annual
India,
Rest
the2013-2014
World Europe
Europe,
Rest of
Reports
forofAY:
Refer Excel
sheet
Segments
the world

Analysis of Segment Data


42

Case: Lucent Technologies and Roche

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43

Lucent Technologies and


Roche

Roches segment reporting is more oriented


toward a line-of-business approach.
The four segments reflect different businesses,
product lines, and customers.
The segments are naturally delineated and are
essentially four different companies operating
under one umbrella corporation.
The low level of intersegment transfers between
divisions provides further evidence that Roche's
Industry Segments are not significantly
integrated.
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44

Lucent Technologies and


Roche

Pharmaceuticals, and Vitamins & Fine


Chemicals division has the highest
proportion of intersegment sales--less
than 5% of its total segment sales.
This low level of integration suggests
that Roche's acquisitions were not
undertaken to achieve synergies through
vertical integration.

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45

Lucent Technologies and


Roche
Lucent's segments:
Note that all three divisions operate in the
"telecommunications networking industry."
The segmentation is based on Lucent's
internal organization, primarily focused on
customer base and market segments rather
than product type or technology.
Consistent with this, we find that Lucent's
intersegment sales arc significant. For the
MCT division, they equal 20% of total
divisional sales
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46

Lucent Technologies and


Roche

Using the 1999 data, we note that each


company has a dominant segment
measured by sales and operating income.
For Lucent it is SPN (62% of sales: 84% of
Operating income); for Roche it is
pharmaceuticals (60% and 69%).
These dominant segments are also the
most profitable. Each has the highest
operating margin and ROA in their
respective companies.
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47

Lucent Technologies and


Roche

These patterns change when we move to


the "secondary" segments. In Roche's
case. Fragrances & Flavors, the smallest
"contributor" to sales and operating
income has the second highest
operating margin and ROA.

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48

Lucent Technologies and


Roche

For Lucent, the differences are more


striking. Although MCT segment sales
were one-third below the Enterprise
segment (14% versus 22%), its
contribution to Lucent's operating income
was 50% higher (17% versus 11% of total
operating income). Consistent with the
above, MCT's profitability ratios (operating
margin and ROA) are significantly higher
than those of Enterprise.
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Analysts point
49

These differences should be viewed in


conjunction with the three-year growth
in sales, Operating income, and assets of
these segments:

See the data on growth

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50

Lucent Technologies and


Roche

The three year trend in sales and operating


income mirrors the 1999 levels of these variables.
Again SPN is the best performer; operating
income increased 201% on a sale increase of
51%. This indicates leveraging of operating
efficiencies and increased return to scale,
justifying the increased investment in that
segment as reflected by growth in (identifiable)
assets.
A similar pattern emerges in the MCT segment; a
28% Increase in sales translates into a 72%
increase in operating profit.
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51

Lucent Technologies and


Roche

On the other hand, as indicated earlier by


its operating ratios, the Enterprise
segment seems to be troubled.
Although sales grew by 37%, operating
income fell 8%. These data raise
questions about the viability of the
market in which Enterprise operates as
well as whether the increased investment
(56% asset growth) in that -segment was
justified.
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52

Lucent Technologies and


Roche

The additional disclosures made by


Roche provide useful insights into
segment characteristics.
The segment liabilities are not
proportional to segment assets; they are
relatively highest for Vitamins (1/3 of
assets) and lowest for Pharmaceuticals
and Fragrances. Thus re-turns on net
investment are highest for Vitamins
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53

Lucent Technologies and


Roche

The R&D data show the highest


investment for Pharmaceuticals (18.3%
of revenue).
While not surprising given the
characteristics of that business, this ratio
is a more useful comparison with other
(pure drug) companies and comment on
it.

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