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2.

3 Binomial Expansions
Learning Outcome:
I. Expand (a+b)n where n is a positive integer,
II. Use the binomial expansion for approximation

Binomial Expansion
A binomial is an expression which has two terms, such as , , , ,

An expansion of the form is called binomial expansion.


Example:

This is the binomial expansion of


(5y3-2)3

Binomial Expansion
n=0, (a+b)0=1
n=1, (a+b)1=a+b
n=2, (a+b)2=a2+2ab+b2
n=3, (a+b)3=a3+3a2b+3ab2+b3
n=4, (a+b)4=a4+4a3b+6a2b2+4ab3+b4
n=5, (a+b)5=a5+5a4b+10a3b2+10a2b3+5ab4+b5
=a5b0+5a4b1+10a3b2+10a2b3+5a1b4+a0b5

Pascal Triangle
n=
0
n=
1
n=
2
n=
3
n=
4
n=
5

1
1a+1b
1a2+2ab+1b2
1a3+3a2b+3ab2+1b3
1a4+4a3b+6a2b2+4ab3+1b4
1a5+5a4b+10a3b2+10a2b3+5ab4+1b5

For any binomial a+b and any natural number n,


++++
where the number, c0, c1, c2, , cn are from the nth row of Pascal
triangle, and c0=cn=1
TAKE NOTE!
The signs of the terms
alternate between + and
Example:
when a or b is a negative
Expand (1-2x)4 using Pascals triangle
number.

Solution:

a=1, b=-2x, n=4. The 4th row of Pascal triangle is used:


(1-2x)4=1(1)4+4(1)3(-2x)+6(1)2(-2x)2+4(1)(-2x)3+1(-2x)4
=1-8x+24x2-32x3+16x4

Try it!
Expand
the following using Pascals triangle.

(a)
=

(b)

Formula for coefficient from Pascal's


Triangle

Example: Row 4, term 2 in Pascal's Triangle is "6".

MATHS FILE
When n is positive integer, may
be evaluated on a scientific
calculator using nCr

Binomial Theorem

or

Binomial Theorem
Example:
Expand using the binomial theorem
Solution:

Try it!
(a)

(b)

Expansion of (1+x)n where


When a=1, b=x,

or

Example
Write
down the first three terms, in ascending power of x, in the bi

nomial expansion of (1-x)20, and hence, find the value of (0.996)20,


correct to 4 significant figures

Substituting x=0.004,

Try it!

TAKE NOTE!
and not

Find

the first four terms in the expansion of in ascending pow


ers of x. By substituting an appropriate value of x into this exp
ansion, find the value of (2.0025)8 correct to 3 decimal places.
Solution:
2.0025=2+0.0025 where 0.0025=
Substituting x=0.005,

Specific Term of an Expansion


The (r+1)th term of (a+b)n is
Example 1:
(p+q)6, find 3rd term
Solution:
u3=u2+1, r=2, a=p, b=q, n=6

Example 2
(x-x-1)7, find two middle terms
Solution:
There are 8th terms in the expansion of (x-x-1)7,the two middle ter
ms are the 4th and 5th terms.
For the 4th term, r=3, a=x, b=-x-1, n=7
For the 5th term, r=4, a=x, b=-x-1, n=7

Example 3
(1-2x)12,

find term containing x9


Solution:
For the term containing x9, r=9, a=1, b=-2x, n=12

Example 4
(x3-x-2)10, find constant
Solution: a=x3, b=-x-2, n=10
=
The term is constant if 30-5r=0, r=6

Example 5
Find the coefficient of x3 in the expansion of
Solution:

Therefore, the coefficient of x3 is 21.

Try it!
Given that coefficient of x3 in the expansion of (k+x)5+(1-2x)6 is 120, find the possible values of k.
Solution:
For (k+x)5, , for the term in x3, r=2,
for (1-2x)6, , for the term in x3, r=3,

Expansion of (1+x)n where n is a Rational


Number

Learning Outcome:
Expand (1+x)n where n is a rational number, and
identify the condition |x|<1 for the validity of this expa
nsion.


When n is positive integer, the expansion terminate at the term
xn
When n is negative or fractional values, the expansion is infinit
e and only valid for -1<x<1 or |x|<1
The expansion is valid for (1+x)n and not for (a+b)n.
To expand (a+b)n , it must first be written as

for all , provided |x|<1

Example 1
Obtain the first four term of , and state the range of x for whic
h each is valid
Solution:
By replacing n=-2, x=-x2,

Example 2
Expand in ascending powers of x up to the term in x3. Hence, e
valuate correct to four decimal places.
Solution:

Let x=0.04,

Example 3
Express in partial fractions. Hence, obtain an expansion of f(x)
in ascending powers of up to the term in . Determine the set o
f values of x for which the expansion is valid.
Solution:

Hence,

provided
provided
The set of values of x for which the expansion is valid is

Try it!
Given x is small, write down a cubic approximation for and

Hence, obtain the first four terms in the series expansion of st


ating the range of values of x for which the series is valid