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RTCCE-International Conference
Accelerated Safety Evaluation Technique for Road Intersection in
Indian Scenario

GUIDED BYShri Sunny Deol G.


Assist. Professor,
NIT Raipur

PRESENTED BY:
Swapnil Shukla
Civil Engineering Department
NIT Raipur

CONTENT

Introduction

Problem Statement

Objective of work

Scope of work

Literature review

Study methodology

Site introduction

Conclusion

References

INTRODUCTION

Safety criteria at road intersection is adversely affected by


heterogeneous traffic conditions with 50% contribution of total road
accidents in India.

The safety performance of various types of intersections is assessed


either by crash data or by conflict data analysis.

The safety performance of the road intersections is primarily dependent


on the primary parameters such as number, frequency, and severity level
of crashes corresponding to its location.

The safety criteria in each type of intersection is also governed by various


secondary intrinsic properties such as geometrics, traffic and pavement
surface characteristics, and road user characteristics etc.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Performance assessment of road infrastructure like Signalized


intersections, Roundabouts, interchanges, islands etc. is daunting task
at heterogeneous traffic conditions.

There is a need for the quick safety assessment technique to identify


the safety levels of various intersections

Categorize the intersections in the urban areas depending on the


severity levels in order to optimize the usage of public funds.

OBJECTIVE OF WORK
Development

of quick and reliable safety


evaluation technique.

Validation

of the technique with the existing


standard evaluation methodology

LITERATURE REVIEW

The reliability of crash or conflict data is questionable which eventually affects the
accuracy levels of the analysis. Hence apart from the primary parameters, secondary
parameters also suggests a quick reliable solution to the safety assessment of various
types of intersection.

Numerous methodologies such as statistical modelling, micro simulation models, crash


prediction models etc. have been adopted for the analysis of safety performance
depending on the type of intersection and data availability.

The Traffic conflict technique (TCT) is an approach based on observable traffic conflict
events in which two or more road users approach each other in time and space such that
the risk of collision presents itself if their movements remain unchanged. Severity
measures, such as time-to-collision (TTC), post-encroachment time (PET).`

SCOPE OF WORK

Intersection Inventory, Stated preference survey, and Traffic survey has been
carried out for the selected five distinct types of intersections in the urban .

The selection criteria of the intersection was based on the type of


intersection, geometrics, traffic characteristics and types of risk factors
involved.

Stated preference survey has been carried out by taking expert group ranking
based on the developed questionnaire form considering various risk factors
affecting the intersection safety.

Framework and Methodology

INVENTORY ELEMENTS FOR PRACTICE

CALCULATION OF SAFETY HAZARDOUS INDEX


Similarly safety factor was estimated independently for each risk factor of the selected
intersection by multiplying estimated risk factor index as discussed in Table 2 with
assigned weight for that particular risk element as discussed in Fig.2. Therefore the final
safety hazardous index (SHI) is estimated for each intersection is calculated by the
following relationship as shown in Eq.1. The estimated SHI values varies from 0 to 1 scale
which indicates severity level of intersection.
Safety Hazardous Index =
n

weight of each safety factor Safety factor condition


i1

Where, n= Total number of safety factors

HIERARCHY OF INTERSECTION SAFETY-

ASSIGNED WEIGHT VALUES USING AHP AND


EXPERT OPINION
Lightning condition
Sight distance
Island Area
Signs and markings
Surface condition
Safety education
Slow moving vehicles/Pedestrian Traffic

Risk Factors

Over speeding
Geometry of curve
Geometry of approach road
Type of control
Type of intersection
Distance of nearby intersection
Hierarchy of intersecting roads
0.000

0.020

0.040

0.060

Weights Assigned

0.080

0.100

0.120

0.140

CHECKLIST POINTS-EVALUATION

Analysis

RESULTS
Risk factor Indexing
1.00
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60

Index

0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00
Hierarchy of intersecting roads Type of intersection

Geometry of approach road

Over speeding

Safety education

Signs and markings

Sight distance

Risk factor Elements

Intersection-1

Intersection-II

Intersection-III

Intersection-IV

Intersection-V

EVALUATED RISK VALUES

Safety Hazardous Index


Safety Hazardous Inde x (SHI)

Intersection-6

Intersection-4

Intersection-3

Intersection-2

Intersection-1

0.000

0.100

0.200

0.300

0.400

Safety Hazardous Index (SHI) Value

0.500

0.600

0.700

0.800

VALIDATION OF SAFETY HAZARDOUS INDEX

The developed SHI values for the selected intersections was validated with
the results obtained from the crash data analysis and surrogate safety
analysis. Crash data analysis has been carried out for all the intersections
from the crash data obtained.

Surrogate safety analysis has been carried out based on the identified conflict
points in each intersection.

Results obtained from the AHP, Crash data and Surrogate safety analysis
techniques were compared and the correlation obtained is quite acceptable.

DATA VALIDATION
0.900

0.800

0.700

0.600

0.500

SHI value
0.400

0.300

0.200

0.100

0.000

Intersection
AHP Technique

Crash Data Analysis

Surrogate safety Analysis

CONCLUSION

Quick and reliable safety performance evaluation technique for


various types of intersections.

The developed method is partially analytical and partially decision


making (audit based) oriented.

Can be used as a preliminary analysis technique for diagnosis the


severity levels of various intersection in the urban area.
Limitations-

May not depict realistic results due to its user decision oriented
nature.

Developed technique also assists various stakeholders

REFERENCE

Amundsen, F., Hyden, C., Traffic Conflicts, In: Proceedings of First Workshop, Institute of Transport
Economics, 1977, Oslo.

Elvik, R., Effects on road safety of converting intersections to roundabouts: review of evidence from
Non-U.S. studies, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, vol.
1847, 2003, pp. 110.

Gettman, D., Head, L., Surrogate Safety Measures from Traffic Simulation Models, In Transportation
Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Transportation Research Board of the
National Academies, Washington, DC, vol. No. 1840, 2003, pp. 104115.

Meeghat, H., et.al., Ranking of Hazardous Road Locations in Two-Lane Two-Way Rural Roads with No
Crash Record, Australasian Transport Research Forum 2011 Proceedings, Adelaide, Australia, 2011.

Minderhoud, M.M., Bovy, P.H.L., Extended time-to-collision measures for road traffic safety
assessment,. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2001. Vol. 33 (1), pp. 8997.

Persaud, B., et.al, Safety effects of roundabout conversions in the United States: empirical Bayes
observational before-and-after study, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation
Research Board, vol. 1751, 2001 pp. 18.

Saaty, T., Decision making for leaders, RWS Publications, 1990.

THANK YOU