You are on page 1of 14


• Education is the knowledge of putting one's potentials to
maximum use. One can safely say that a human being is
not in the proper sense till he is educated.

• Education has an immense impact on the human society.

• It trains the human mind to think and take the right

decision. In other words, man becomes a rational animal
when he is educated.
• This may well explain the fact that rich and
developed nations of the world have very high
literacy rate and productive human resource.
In fact these nations have started imparting
selective training and education programs so
as to meet the new technical and business
demands of the 21st century.

• Education is a must if a nation aspires to

achieve growth and development and more
importantly sustain it.
Indian Education Historical Background
• In the ancient days, sages and scholars imparted
education orally, but after the development of
letters, it took the form of writing.

• Palm leaves and barks of trees were used for

education, and this in turn helped spread the
written literature.

• Temples and community centers often took the

role of schools

• It was in the 11th century that the Muslims

established elementary and secondary schools.
This led to the forming of few universities too at
cities like Delhi, Lucknow and Allahabad.
• The history of
education in India is
very rich and

• The Vedas, Puranas,

Arthasahtra are only
some of the
milestones that the
traditional Indian
knowledge system
boasts of.

• There are evidences

of imparting formal
education in ancient
India under the
Gurukul system.
• The Gurukul system of education is one of the
oldest on earth but before that the guru
shishya system was extant, in which students
were taught orally and the data would be
passed from one generation to the next.

• Women and people of lower castes gradually

lost their right to educate themselves.

• Education was free (and often limited to the

higher castes), but students from well-to-do
families paid Gurudakshina, a voluntary
contribution after the completion of their
Pre- Independence education system
• From the early decades of British rule, deliberate
attempts were made to introduce and propagate
Western educational system in India.

• The English language and the reformation

movements of the 19th century that had the
most liberating effect in pre-independent India .

• Thus, the Britishers, although rightly criticized

for devastating the Indian economy, can also be
credited for bringing a revolution in the Indian
education system.
• Education was widespread in the 18th century,
with a school for every temple, mosque or village
in most regions of the country.

• The subjects taught included Reading, Writing,

Arithmetic, Theology, Law, Astronomy,
Metaphysics, Ethics, Medical Science and Religion.
The schools were attended by students
representative of all classes of society.

• Traditional structures were not recognized by the

British government and have been on the decline
since. Gandhi is said to have described the
traditional educational system as a beautiful tree
that was destroyed during the British rule.
Post Independence
Present education system in India

• As education is the means for bringing

socio- economic transformation in a
society, various measures are being
taken to enhance the access of
education to the marginalized sections
of the society.

• The present education system in India

mainly comprises of primary education,
secondary education, senior secondary
education and higher education.
Expenditure on Education in India