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Models of Teaching

EDTC 6341 Student-Centered Learning

Models of Teaching are really


Models of learning
Most important role of teacher is to teach students how to
learn as they:

Acquire information
Ideas
Skills
Values
Ways of thinking
Means of expressing themselves

Joyce, B., Weil, M., & Calhoun, E. (2000). Models of teaching.


Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, pp. 6-7.

According to John Goodlad

Elementary teachers
use 3-4 strategies
almost exclusively;
in A Place Called School

Secondary teachers:
1 or 2 strategies

What do you think


the most common strategy is?

Renner calls it The Guided Tour


Approach
The role of educator is to
pass on mastery over
content as the content is
envisaged by the
teachermuch as a tour
guide points out sights and
the [learner] is discouraged
from taking any detour
(Sunal, n.d., 1).

In which the role of teaching is:


Providing Information
Verification of information
Application of Information
Sunal, D. W. (n.d.). The learning cycle: A comparison of models of
strategies for conceptual reconstruction: A review of the
literature. Retrieved January 19, 2008, from
http://astlc.ua.edu/ScienceInElem&MiddleSchool/565LearningC
ycle-ComparingModels.htm

John Goodlad states NOT ENOUGH


In Schools for All Seasons, Goodlad states:
Schools must provide rich sensory stimulation
Organized around

the kinesthetic,
the aesthetic,
the social,
the linguistic,
the mathematical, and so on

Thus, right or left brain does not matter

Not an easy task and it runs counter to


prevailing high-stakes test environment

The unit of selection designed to involve


everyone in the class over a period of weeks,
with accompanying teacher observation and
diagnosis of individual learners, has largely
disappeared from our schools, in part
because it is associated in the public mind
with "progressive education" and in part
because it demands great pedagogical skill.
Goodlad, J. (1998). Schools for all seasons. Phi Delta
Kappan 79(9), pp. 670-671.

The Guided Tour Approach to


Teaching Magnetism
Teacher Writes Rule/Generalization on
Board
Teacher Explains All Words; Ensures
Student Understanding
Teacher Asks Students for Examples
Students Predict Which Materials Will
Be Attracted to Magnets
Students Verify Predictions

According to John Goodlad

Elementary teachers
use 3-4 strategies
almost exclusively;
in A Place Called School

Secondary teachers:
1 or 2 strategies

What can we do differently


As MTTs and/or leaders to
enact change?

A Model of Teaching includes:


* Instructional
Strategies

Lecturing
Small group work
Laboratory activities
Role Playing
Drill/Practice/Recitation
Problem-Oriented
Instruction ...
Simulations, etc.

* Belief
Systems
- How do people
learn?
- What should the
educational
environment do?

Models we will be using

Inductive Learning (Hilda Taba)


Concept Attainment (Jerome Bruner)
Deductive Learning
Advance Organizers (David Ausubel)
Group Investigation Model
Cooperative Learning

Learning is
Identifying
Patterns!

A Study of Thinking
People can and do determine why it is that
they came up with solutions to problems and
why it is that some stimulus affects them
accordingly!
People differ in the way that they do this!

How would you classify the


following?
Think about how you would categorize the
individuals in the next slide
Type your categories using text chat

Left to their own devices.


Humans will categorize and act upon the
attributes of the categoriescategorization
is a form of invention
There are over 7 million discriminable colors
alone how many of you know the names
of all 7 million? 1 million?

Is there a color missing?

Think about thinking


What mental processes did you go through to
decide whether there was a color missing?
How did you categorize the colors?

And these categories are

Concepts

We group objects and


events and people around us into classes
responding to class membership rather
than uniquenesses

Different ways to categorize


Affective
Functional
Formal

What categories?
Affective, functional, formal

Bruner
..the true act of discovery is not a random
event.it involves an expectation of finding
discovering -regularities and relationships in
the environment
Problem solving with structured searching is
the key to discovery learning

Humans are different in the ways


that they conceptualize
Scanners select one aspect of a problem
and assume it is correct until new data say
otherwise
Focusers look at totality and generate a
theory and keep re-assessing as new data
become available.

As a teacher, you know a


concept that students should
have

How get it across


to students?

Inductive Teaching

Teacher Gives Students Magnets


Students Identify What Things Are Attracted
to Magnets
Students Generate a Rule/Generalization
Teacher Gives Students Other Materials
Students Predict Which Materials Will Be
Attracted to Magnets
Students Verify Predictions

Elements of a Concept
Jerome Bruner
Every Concept has
1. A name
2. Examples and Non-Examples
(positives and negatives)
3. Attributes
4. Attribute Values
(essential and non-essential)
A RULE, then, is the statement of the essential
attributes of the concept

Multiple Paths to Learning

Teacher Gives Students Magnets


Students Identify What Things Are Attracted
to Magnets
Students Generate a Rule/Generalization
Teacher Gives Students Other Materials
Students Predict Which Materials Will Be
Attracted to Magnets
Students Verify Predictions

Elements of a Concept
Jerome Bruner
Every Concept has
1. A name
2. Examples and Non-Examples
(positives and negatives)
3. Attributes
4. Attribute Values
(essential and non-essential)
A RULE, then, is the statement of the essential
attributes of the concept

Field Theory
Behavior is a Function of
Person ......................Environment

B = f (P, E)
Kurt Lewin

Inductive Teaching

Big Idea
Smaller Ideas
Small Ideas

Smaller Ideas
Small Ideas

UNDERSTANDING A CONCEPT MEANS


KNOWING ALL OF THESE ELEMENTS

1. A name
2. Examples and Non-Examples
(positives and negatives)
3. Attributes
4. Attribute Values
(essential and non-essential)
A RULE, then, is the statement of the essential
attributes of the concept

Deductive

Teacher Writes Rule on Board


Teacher Explains All Words,
Ensures Meaningfulness
Teacher Asks Students For
Examples
Teacher Gives Students
Materials and Magnets
Students Predict Which
Materials Will Be Attracted to
Magnets
Students Verify Predictions

Inductive
Teacher Gives Students
Magnets
Students Identify What Things
Are Attracted
to Magnets
Students Generate a
Rule/Generalization
Teacher Gives Students Other
Materials
Students Predict Which
Materials Will Be Attracted to
Magnets
Students Verify Predictions

Conditions of Learning Concepts


(after Robert Gagne)

External

Presentation of examples
representative of the
concept
Instructions to elicit a
common link
Verification of concept
Reinforcement
REPETITION?

Internal
Discriminate between
examples and nonexamples

Find the Pattern

Circumference Diameter
11 cm
56 inches
4 ft.
22 m
3.1 inches

3.5 cm
17.8 inches
1.3 ft.
7m
1 inch

Inductive Teaching

Big Idea
Smaller Ideas
Small Ideas

Smaller Ideas
Small Ideas

Elements of a Concept
Jerome Bruner
Every Concept has
1. A name
2. Examples and Non-Examples
(positives and negatives)
3. Attributes
4. Attribute Values
(essential and non-essential)
A RULE, then, is the statement of the essential
attributes of the concept

UNDERSTANDING A CONCEPT MEANS


KNOWING ALL OF THESE ELEMENTS

1. A name
2. Examples and Non-Examples
(positives and negatives)
3. Attributes
4. Attribute Values
(essential and non-essential)
A RULE, then, is the statement of the essential
attributes of the concept

Deductive

Teacher Writes Rule on Board


Teacher Explains All Words,
Ensures Meaningfulness
Teacher Asks Students For
Examples
Teacher Gives Students
Materials and Magnets
Students Predict Which
Materials Will Be Attracted to
Magnets
Students Verify Predictions

Inductive
Teacher Gives Students
Magnets
Students Identify What Things
Are Attracted
to Magnets
Students Generate a
Rule/Generalization
Teacher Gives Students Other
Materials
Students Predict Which
Materials Will Be Attracted to
Magnets
Students Verify Predictions

Conditions of Learning Concepts


(after Robert Gagne)

External

Presentation of examples
representative of the
concept
Instructions to elicit a
common link
Verification of concept
Reinforcement
REPETITION?

Internal
Discriminate between
examples and nonexamples

Interview with OTTO ROTCOD, PH.D.


Man, Oprah's sharp on A.M.
No, Mel Gibson is a casino's big lemon.
Sir, I soon saw Bob was no Osiris.
Oh, no! Don Ho!
Repel evil as a live leper!
Draw pupils lip upward.
Sit on a potato pan, Otis.
Go deliver a dare, vile dog.
Ned, go gag Ogden.
Draw, o coward!
Eh, Ca va, la vache?
So, Ida, adios!
Alautel elle alla, lautel elle alla, elle le tua la.
Sex at noon taxes.
Stella won no wallets
Too bad, I hid a boot.

More with Dr. Rotcod


Star comedy by Democrats.
Cigar? Toss it in a can, it is so tragic.
No lemons, no melon.
Doc note, I dissent. A fast never prevents a fatness. I diet on cod.
Tuna nut
Go hang a salami! I'm a lasagna hog!
U.F.O. tofu.
Sniff'um muffins.
Bird rib.
Dairy myriad.
Gnu dung.
Laminated E.T. animal.
If I had a hi-fi!
Tarzan raised a Desi Arnaz rat.

Otto Rotcod (continued)


Pa's a sap.
Ma is as selfless as I am!
Racecar
Madam
Kayak
Bob
Ava
03230
Evil olive.
Lager, Sir, is regal.
Red rum, sir is murder!
Yo! Bottoms up, U.S. Motto, boy!
Cain: A maniac!
Senile Felines
Solo gigolos.
Sore eye, Eros?
Egad, an adage!
Rats live on no evil star.
Never odd or even
Step on no pets!

Even More Dr. Rotcod


Yawn a more Roman way.
Rise to vote, Sir!
A man, a plan, a canal; Panama?
A dog, a plan, a canal: pagoda.
A man, a plan, a cat, a canal; Panama?
A man, a plan, a cat, a ham, a yak, a yam, a hat, a canal--Panama!
A Toyota! Race fast, safe car. A Toyota
A man, a plan, a canal, Panama!
A man, a plan, a cat, a ham, a yak, a yam, a hat, a canal - Panama!
Dennis, Nell, Edna, Leon, Nedra, Anita, Rolf, Nora, Alice, Carol,
Leo, Jane, Reed, Dena, Dale, Basil, Rae, Penny, Lana, Dave,
Denny, Lena, Ida, Bernadette, Ben, Ray, Lila, Nina, Jo, Ira,
Mara, Sara, Mario, Jan, Ina, Lily, Arne, Bette, Dan, Reba, Diane,
Lynn, Ed, Eva, Dana, Lynne, Pearl, Isabel, Ada, Ned, Dee,
Rena, Joel, Lora, Cecil, Aaron, Flora, Tina, Arden, Noel, and
Ellen sinned.

Web Site of
Doctor Otto Rotcod
http://www.doctorottorotcod.www//:ptth

Find the Pattern

Circumference Diameter
11 cm
56 inches
4 ft.
22 m
3.1 inches

3.5 cm
17.8 inches
1.3 ft.
7m
1 inch

There are different ways to


categorize

Affective
Functional
Formal

Watch for the ah-ha!

Edward Benbow
A Palindrome of 100,000 words

Begins Al, sign it Lover!


And ends

Lawrence Levines 1986 palindromic


novel, Dr. Awkward and Olson in Oslo
contains 31,594 words

ROMA TIBI SUBITO


MOTIBUS IBIT AMOR

NIYON ANOMHMATA MH
MONAN OYIN

A man, a plan, a caret, a ban, a myriad, a sum, a lac, a liar, a hoop, a pint, a
catalpa, a gas, an oil, a bird, a yell, a vat, a caw, a pax, a wag, a tax, a nay, a
ram, a cap, a yam, a gay, a tsar, a wall, a car, a luger, a ward, a bin, a
woman, a vassal, a wolf, a tuna, a nit, a pall, a fret, a watt, a bay, a daub, a
tan, a cab, a datum, a gall, a hat, a fag, a zap, a say, a jaw, a lay, a wet, a
gallop, a tug, a trot, a trap, a tram, a torr, a caper, a top, a tonk, a toll, a ball,
a fair, a sax, a minim, a tenor, a bass, a passer, a capital, a rut, an amen, a
ted, a cabal, a tang, a sun, an ass, a maw, a sag, a jam, a dam, a sub, a salt,
an axon, a sail, an ad, a wadi, a radian, a room, a rood, a rip, a tad, a pariah,
a revel, a reel, a reed, a pool, a plug, a pin, a peek, a parabola, a dog, a pat, a
cud, a nu, a fan, a pal, a rum, a nod, an eta, a lag, an eel, a batik, a mug, a
mot, a nap, a maxim, a mood, a leek, a grub, a gob, a gel, a drab, a citadel, a
total, a cedar, a tap, a gag, a rat, a manor, a bar, a gal, a cola, a pap, a yaw,
a tab, a raj, a gab, a nag, a pagan, a bag, a jar, a bat, a way, a papa, a local,
a gar, a baron, a mat, a rag, a gap, a tar, a decal, a tot, a led, a tic, a bard, a
leg, a bog, a burg, a keel, a doom, a mix, a map, an atom, a gum, a kit, a
baleen, a gala, a ten, a don, a mural, a pan, a faun, a ducat, a pagoda, a lob,
a rap, a keep, a nip, a gulp, a loop, a deer, a leer, a lever, a hair, a pad, a
tapir, a door, a moor, an aid, a raid, a wad, an alias, an ox, an atlas, a bus, a
madam, a jag, a saw, a mass, an anus, a gnat, a lab, a cadet, an em, a
natural, a tip, a caress, a pass, a baronet, a minimax, a sari, a fall, a ballot, a
knot, a pot, a rep, a carrot, a mart, a part, a tort, a gut, a poll, a gateway, a
law, a jay, a sap, a zag, a fat, a hall, a gamut, a dab, a can, a tabu, a day, a
batt, a waterfall, a patina, a nut, a flow, a lass, a van, a mow, a nib, a draw, a

Your Turncomplete the


palindromes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Name no ___________
Step on ____________
Never odd _______________
Some men interpret ______________
Dennis and Edna ____________
Egad, a base tone denotes _________
Was it Eliots _________________?

23+45
Add them together
23
45
Stop if the sum is a palindrome
68
Otherwise reverse the
86
number
15
And add these numbers
4
Continue the process
45
until
605
The sum is a
1
palindrome
Take any two numbers

506

1111

Lets Teach the Concept

Oxymoron

Attributes a

Examples

Non-Examples

Colorless green leaves,


sleeping furiously
Chomsky

Romeo, wherefore art thou


Why then, O brawling love? O loving hate!
O anything, of nothing first create! O
heavy lightness! Serious vanity!
Misshapen chaos of well-seeming forms!
Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire,
sick health! Still-waking sleep, that is not
what it is. This love I fee, that feel no love
in this. (Act 1)

Old customs (and nocturnal vampires) die hard.


And so, each and every time I see an actor on
stage perform delicate surgery, I think that it is
extremely urgent to consider whether or not it
is a close shave. Thoughtfully consider this
arranged staged scenario:
Noticing her dark black shorts, and not wishing
to come to a complete stop, I clumsily blurted,
Real genuine messy garbage obviously
clearly is bad waste. Irregardless, could you
visually picture all that?
Honest truth?

Pleonasmthe use of more


words than those necessary to
denote mere sense
redundancy

Waste of Time?
Check out these AP Style Analysis Concepts
Figurative Language

Alliteration
Assonance/Consonance

Simile
Metaphor
Personification
Onomatopoeia
Hyperbole
Paradox
Sarcasm
Invective/Splenetic
Metonymy
Synedoche

Diction

Monosyllabic/Polysyllabic
Colloquial/Informal
Archaic
Denotative/Connotative
Concrete/Abstract
Eupnonious Cacophonous

Which of these might be taught using an


inductive concept model?

1. Identify adverbs

Find the Concept


Yes The hunter ran quickly after the fleeing deer.
No Jimmy ran his razor scooter off the path.
Yes Kit Carson stole quietly up to the working beaver.
No The grizzly bear rummaged in the garbage can.
Yes The cowboy rapidly fired his gun until it was
empty.
No The book was about knights in armor.
Yes Susan lovingly hugged her younger sister.
Yes The magnificently powerful tiger slithered through
the dense undergrowth.
Yes The miner very quickly filled his sacks with gold
dust.

Which of these might be taught using an


inductive concept model?

1. Identify adverbs
2. Know time period in which Poe wrote
3. Recognize similes in writing examples

The Big High and Lonesome

The big high and lonesomes a place in my mind


like out from Lakeview to Burns
Or up on the Judith or at Promontory
bout where the UP tracks turn
Its anywhere you feel tiny
when you get a good look at the sky
And sometimes when its stormin
you can look the Lord in the eye.

Which of these might be taught using an


inductive concept model?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Identify adverbs
Know time period in which Poe wrote
Recognize similes in writing examples
Understand miscibility in liquids
Know why two coffee cans roll down an
inclined plane at different speeds
6. Recognize a zone defense in football
7. Understand gerrymandering

Steps in the Concept Attainment Model

Select a concept
Determine the Definition
Select the attributes
Choose the examples
Introduce the process
Present the examples and have students
identify the attributes
Have students develop their concept
definition and possibly provide examples
Focus student attention on how they
developed the concept

Now Heres a Concept

The girl wearing a bow took a bow.


Jason moped around the house when his dad.
refused to buy him a moped.
The sewer threw her sewing into the sewer.
The unionized stockroom workers had ionized
and unionized water.
At the present, Rob will present the award.
The bass bass sang Take Me to the River.

Some more
The bandage was wound around the wound.
The dump was so full that it had to refuse
more refuse.
The wind was too strong to wind the sail.
After a number of injections my jaw got
number.
The soldier decided to desert his dessert in
the desert.

Still more of these suckers


The farm was used to produce produce.
The dump was so full that it had to refuse
more refuse.
We must polish the Polish furniture.
He could lead if he would get the lead out.
When shot at, the dove dove into the bushes.

A Heteronym
(words spelled same with a different meaning and
pronunciation)

As a teacher, you know a


concept that students should
have

How get it across


to students?

Elements of a Concept
Jerome Bruner
Every Concept has
1. A name
2. Examples and Non-Examples
(positives and negatives)
3. Attributes
4. Attribute Values
(essential and non-essential)
A RULE, then, is the statement of the essential
attributes of the concept.

Inductive Teaching

Teacher gives students magnets


Students identify what things are
attracted to magnets
Students generate a rule/ generalization
Teacher gives students other materials
Students predict which materials will be
attracted to magnets
Students verify predictions

Inductive Teaching

Big Idea
Smaller Ideas
Small Ideas

Smaller Ideas
Small Ideas

Conditions of Learning Concepts


(after Robert Gagne)

External

Presentation of examples
representative of the
concept
Instructions to elicit a
common link
Verification of concept
Reinforcement
REPETITION?

Internal
Discriminate between
examples and nonexamples

Find the Pattern

Circumference
11 cm
56 inches
4 ft
22 m
3.1 inches

Diameter
3.5 cm
17.8 inches
1.3 ft.
7m
1 inch

Lets Teach the Concept

Oxymoron

Attributes
Examples

Non-Examples

Colorless green leaves,


sleeping furiously
-- Chomsky

Romeo, wherefore art thou


Why then, O brawling love? O loving hate!
O anything, of nothing first create! O
heavy lightness! Serious vanity!
Misshapen chaos of well-seeming forms!
Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire,
sick health! Still-waking sleep, that is not
what it is. This love I fee, that feel no love
in this. (Act 1)

Old customs (and nocturnal vampires) die hard.


And so, each and every time I see an actor on
stage perform delicate surgery, I think that it is
extremely urgent to consider whether or not it
is a close shave. Thoughtfully consider this
arranged staged scenario:
Noticing her dark black shorts, and not wishing
to come to a complete stop, I clumsily blurted,
Real genuine messy garbage obviously
clearly is bad waste. Irregardless, could you
visually picture all that?
Honest truth?

Pleonasmthe use of more


words than those necessary to
denote mere sense. . .
redundancy (all over again?)

Waste of Time?
Check out these AP Style Analysis Concepts

Figurative Language

Alliteration
Assonance/Consonance
Simile
Metaphor
Personification
Onomatopoeia
Hyperbole
Paradox
Sarcasm
Invective/Splenetic
Metonymy
Synedoche

Diction

Monosyllabic/Polysyllabic
Colloquial/Informal
Archaic
Denotative/Connotative
Concrete/Abstract
Eupnonious Cacophonous

Which of these might be taught using an


inductive concept model?

1. Identify adverbs

Find the Concept


Yes The hunter ran quickly after the fleeing deer.
No Jimmy ran his razor scooter off the path.
Yes Kit Carson stole quietly up to the working beaver.
No The grizzly bear rummaged in the garbage can.
Yes The cowboy rapidly fired his gun until it was
empty.
No The book was about knights in armor.
Yes Susan lovingly hugged her younger sister.
Yes The magnificently powerful tiger slithered through
the dense undergrowth.
Yes The miner very quickly filled his sacks with gold
dust.

Which of these might be taught using an


inductive concept model?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Identify adverbs
Know time period in which Poe wrote
Recognize similes in writing examples
Understand miscibility in liquids
Know why two coffee cans roll down an
inclined plane at different speeds
6. Recognize a zone defense in football
7. Understand gerrymandering

Steps in the Concept Attainment Model

Select a concept
Determine the Definition
Select the attributes
Choose the examples
Introduce the process
Present the examples and have students
identify the attributes
Have students develop their concept
definition and possibly provide examples
Focus student attention on how they
developed the concept

Now Heres a Concept

The girl wearing a bow took a bow.


Jason moped around the house when his dad.
refused to buy him a moped.
The sewer threw her sewing into the sewer.
The unionized stockroom workers had ionized
and unionized water.
At the present, Rob will present the award.

Some more
The bandage was wound around the wound.
The dump was so full that it had to refuse
more refuse.
The wind was too strong to wind the sail.
After a number of injections my jaw got
number.
The soldier decided to desert his dessert in
the desert.

Still more of these suckers


The farm was used to produce produce.
The dump was so full that it had to refuse
more refuse.
We must polish the Polish furniture.
He could lead if he would get the lead out.
When shot at, the dove dove into the bushes.

A Heteronym
(words spelled same with a different meaning and
pronunciation)

The bass bass sang Take Me to the River.

Your job?
To teach an inductive lesson this week (or
very early next week and present your
findings to the class on Tuesday.
Have funand hear you next week.

Very special thanks to:


Dr. Howard Jones from the University
of Houston for generously allowing me
to steal his ideas (and use his
PowerPoint Presentations) and
encouraging me to continue my quest to
be a missionary of models.